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A Redaction History of the Pentateuch Targums


Genesis 1:26–27 in the Exegetical Context of Formative Judaism


This volume combines Targum studies with Judaic studies. The author assigns different Targums each to a respective particular “Sitz im Leben”, stressing the close connection between Targum and Midrash literature. She challenges the assumption that all extant Targums were compiled for the Synagogue. Instead, she suggests that Targum Onqelos might have fulfilled a function in the context of the early beth din and demonstrates that Pseudo-Jonathan can be linked with the rhetorical practices which abounded in later amoraic, educational circles.
Publisher: Gorgias Press LLC
Availability: In stock
SKU (ISBN): 978-1-4632-0371-9
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Publication Status: In Print

Publication Date: Jun 11,2014
Interior Color: Black
Trim Size: 6 x 9
Page Count: 311
Language: English
ISBN: 978-1-4632-0371-9
$105.00
$73.50

A Redaction History of the Pentateuch Targums combines Targum studies with Judaic studies. The author assigns different Targums (Fragment Targum [Recension P, MS Paris 110], Neofiti 1, Onqelos and Pseudo-Jonathan) each to a respective particular “Sitz im Leben”, stressing the close connection between Targum and Midrash literature. She challenges the assumption that all extant Targums were compiled for the Synagogue. Instead, she suggests that Targum Onqelos might have fulfilled a function in the context of the early beth din and demonstrates that Pseudo-Jonathan can be linked with the rhetorical practices which abounded in later amoraic, educational circles. Her theory is that Pseudo-Jonathan was actually compiled in stages. She identifies various problems, for example, the supposition by Mortensen and Flesher that rabbis and priests worked in distinct groups in the fourth century C.E.

A Redaction History of the Pentateuch Targums combines Targum studies with Judaic studies. The author assigns different Targums (Fragment Targum [Recension P, MS Paris 110], Neofiti 1, Onqelos and Pseudo-Jonathan) each to a respective particular “Sitz im Leben”, stressing the close connection between Targum and Midrash literature. She challenges the assumption that all extant Targums were compiled for the Synagogue. Instead, she suggests that Targum Onqelos might have fulfilled a function in the context of the early beth din and demonstrates that Pseudo-Jonathan can be linked with the rhetorical practices which abounded in later amoraic, educational circles. Her theory is that Pseudo-Jonathan was actually compiled in stages. She identifies various problems, for example, the supposition by Mortensen and Flesher that rabbis and priests worked in distinct groups in the fourth century C.E.

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Contributor Biography

Gudrun Lier

Gudrun Elisabeth Lier is currently employed as lecturer of Hebrew and Jewish Studies in the Department of Religion Studies at the University of Johannesburg, South Africa. She holds a Masters in Semitic Languages from the Rand Afrikaans University and a DLit et Phil (Semitic Languages) from the University of Johannesburg. She has written a number of scholarly articles in the field of Targum and Jewish Studies.

  • Dedication Page (page 5)
  • Table of Contents (page 7)
  • Preface (page 11)
  • Abbreviations (page 13)
  • Labels Used in the Book (page 19)
  • Electronic Texts (page 23)
  • Transliteration of Hebrew and Aramaic Consonants (page 25)
  • Chapter 1: Introduction (page 27)
    • Terminology and Methodology (page 34)
    • Discussion of Book Chapters (page 40)
  • Chapter 2: A Historical Context for Pentateuch Targums (page 43)
    • 2.1. Categories of Pentateuch Targums (page 45)
    • 2.2. Theories Concerning Oral and Written Targums (page 46)
    • 2.3. The Impact of the Destruction of the Second Temple on Judaism (page 56)
      • 2.3.1. The standardization of the Synagogue liturgy (page 56)
        • 2.3.1.1. The exigency for standardization (page 57)
        • 2.3.1.2. Synagogue functions before and after the Destruction (page 58)
      • 2.3.2. The house of study after the Destruction (page 61)
      • 2.3.3. The emergence of an innovative new leadership (page 63)
        • 2.3.3.1. The increasing influence of pharisaic sages (page 63)
      • 2.3.4. The term rabbi as title (page 72)
        • 2.3.4.1. Different rabbinic titles (page 74)
      • 2.3.5. Who provided the leadership in Palestinian Synagogues? (page 74)
        • 2.3.5.1. Different leaders in post-Temple Synagogues in Palestine (page 76)
      • 2.3.6. Two forms of study (page 82)
        • 2.3.6.1. Two religious groupings: strict and lenient (page 83)
      • 2.4. Pentateuch Targums: Different Dialects Dissimilar Designs (page 86)
        • 2.4.1 . The use of Aramaic Bible translations (page 86)
        • 2.4.2. The prohibition on writing (page 87)
        • 2.4.3. Fixed authorized Aramaic renditions (page 90)
          • 2.4.3.1. Targumic rendering in the Synagogue (page 91)
          • 2.4.3.2. The meturgeman (page 93)
          • 2.4.3.3. Liturgical and scholarly Targums (page 97)
        • 2.4.4. The function of Proto-O (page 99)
        • 2.4.5 . A proposed theory of standardized liturgical Targums (page 100)
        • 2.4.6. The case for academic Targums (page 103)
      • 2.5. Summative: The Relation between Targums and Rabbinic Academies (page 104)
  • Chapter 3: The Historical Roots of Targumic Interpretation of Genesis 1:26…27 (page 107)
  • Chapter 4: A Midrashic Framework for Targumic Renderings of Genesis 1:26…27 (page 115)
    • 4.1. The Concept of Gods Unity and Uniqueness (page 124)
    • 4.2. Midrash Defined in Correspondence with Gen. 1:26…27 (page 125)
    • 4.3. A Systematic Analysis of Gen. 1:26…27 in Various Midrashic Passages (page 127)
      • 4.3.1. Gen. 1:26…27 in Mek. Pischa 14 and GenR 8:11 (page 128)
      • 4.3.2 . Gen. 1:26…27 and the identification of polytheistic exegeses (page 137)
      • 4.3.3. Gen. 1:26…27 and the aspect of (page 146)
    • 4.4. Midrashic Exegeses of Gen 1:26…27: A Comparative Summary (page 159)
  • Chapter 5: Genesis 1:26…27 according to Fragment Targum (Recension P, MS Paris 110 ) and Neofiti 1 (page 163)
    • 5.1. Current Scholarly Views on FragTarg (Recension P, MS Paris 110) and Neofiti 1 (page 163)
    • 5.2. The Theological Emphasis of Liturgical Targums (page 164)
    • 5.3. FragTarg (Recension P, MS Paris 110) (page 165)
      • 5.3.1 . Conclusive Remarks on FragTarg (page 178)
    • 5.4. Neofiti 1 (page 179)
      • 5.4.1 . Ns rendering of Gen. 1:26…27 (page 182)
        • 5.4.1.1. Gen. 1:26 (page 183)
        • 5.4.1.2. Gen. 1:27 (page 190)
    • 5.5. Conclusive Remarks on FragTarg and N (page 193)
  • Chapter 6: Targum Onqelos and Genesis 1:26…27 (page 195)
    • 6.1. TO and the Rendering of Genesis 1:26…27 (page 197)
      • The context of the beth din (page 218)
      • Elements of Halakhah (page 221)
      • Onqelos approach to priestly matters (page 224)
    • 6.2. Exegetical and Historical Relationships in TO (page 226)
  • Chapter 7: Targum Pseudo-Jonathan and Genesis 1:26…27 (page 229)
    • 7.1. PJs Composite Arrangement (page 230)
      • 7.1.1. Different layers in PJ (page 230)
      • 7.1.2. Dialectical differences in PJ (page 231)
    • 7.2. The Integrated Character of PJ (page 234)
    • 7.3. Rabbinic Learning in Formative Judaism and PJ (page 237)
    • 7.4. Genesis 1:26…27 in PJ (page 243)
      • 7.4.1. Genesis 1:26 in PJ (page 246)
        • 7.4.1.1. Genesis 1:26 in PJ and midrashic traditions (page 246)
      • 7.4.2. Genesis 1:27 in PJ (page 252)
        • 7.4.2.1. Genesis 1:27 in PJ and midrashic traditions (page 254)
    • 7.5. Exegetical and Historical Relationships in PJ Genesis 1:26…27 (page 262)
    • 7.6. The Problem of Priestly Entitlements in PJ (page 265)
    • 7.7. Conclusive Remarks in Matters of PJ Genesis 1:26…27 (page 268)
  • Chapter 8: Summary and General Conclusions (page 273)
  • Appendix (page 281)
  • Examples of Interpolations in PJ (page 281)
    • PJ Genesis (page 281)
    • PJ Exodus (page 283)
    • PJ Leviticus (page 288)
    • PJ Numbers (page 288)
    • PJ Deuteronomy (page 292)
  • Bibliography (page 295)
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