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A general introduction to the origin and development of Christianity, from its Jewish background in the land of Israel up to its contribution to the thought and art of medieval Europe.
Publisher: Gorgias Press LLC
Availability: In stock
SKU (ISBN): 978-1-4632-0238-5
  • *
Publication Status: In Print

Publication Date: Mar 26,2014
Interior Color: Black
Trim Size: 6 x 9
Page Count: 370
Language: English
ISBN: 978-1-4632-0238-5
$48.00
$28.80

This book offers a general introduction to the origin and development of Christianity, from its Jewish background in the land of Israel up to its contribution to the thought and art of medieval Europe. Each chapter deals with a different aspect of the history, life and thought of the Early Church, with the evidence from the earliest written sources attesting to the manifestation in history of the Christian phenomenon, and explanations of the different expressions of thought and works in the Early Church, including its apocalyptic and messianic doctrines, liturgy and sacraments, monasticism, art and architecture.


Pau Figueras is emeritus professor of archaeology at Ben Gurion University of the Negev, and the author of a number of publications on early Christian and Jewish art.


Front cover: The Church of the Gentiles, from a mosaic in the 4th century church of Santa Pudenziana, Rome.

This book offers a general introduction to the origin and development of Christianity, from its Jewish background in the land of Israel up to its contribution to the thought and art of medieval Europe. Each chapter deals with a different aspect of the history, life and thought of the Early Church, with the evidence from the earliest written sources attesting to the manifestation in history of the Christian phenomenon, and explanations of the different expressions of thought and works in the Early Church, including its apocalyptic and messianic doctrines, liturgy and sacraments, monasticism, art and architecture.


Pau Figueras is emeritus professor of archaeology at Ben Gurion University of the Negev, and the author of a number of publications on early Christian and Jewish art.


Front cover: The Church of the Gentiles, from a mosaic in the 4th century church of Santa Pudenziana, Rome.

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Pau Figueras

  • Table of Contents (page 7)
  • Foreword (page 15)
  • Abbreviations (page 17)
  • Chapter 1: The Jewish Background of Early Christianity (page 19)
    • Judaism in Roman Palestine (page 19)
      • Political structure and main historical events (page 19)
      • Hellenization and conservatism (page 21)
      • Religious sects and political parties (page 23)
      • Temple and worship (page 25)
      • Synagogues and other institutions (page 26)
      • The Sages (page 27)
      • Languages, culture, and art (page 28)
      • The Jewish faith (page 28)
    • The Jewish Diaspora (page 30)
    • Egypt (page 31)
      • Elephantine (page 32)
      • Onias' temple (page 32)
    • Alexandria (page 32)
      • Social and political conditions (page 33)
      • Culture (page 33)
      • Assimilation and self-consciousness (page 33)
      • Philo (c. 20 BCE-50 CE) (page 34)
      • Community organization and institutions (page 34)
      • Relations with Jerusalem (page 35)
    • Rome (page 35)
      • Jews and Syrians (page 36)
      • Slaves and freemen (page 36)
      • Legal status of the Jewish religion (page 37)
      • Synagogues (page 38)
      • Jews in the emperor's palace (page 38)
      • The "Chrestus" affair (page 38)
      • Jewish catacombs (page 39)
    • Other Countries (page 39)
      • Antioch (page 40)
      • Asia Minor (page 40)
      • Greece (page 41)
      • Dura-Europos (page 41)
      • North Africa (page 42)
      • Gaul and Spain (page 43)
    • Summary and Conclusions (page 43)
  • Chapter 2: Early Christianity in Written Sources (page 47)
    • Non-Christian Sources (page 48)
      • The Jewish Sources (page 48)
      • The Roman sources (page 55)
      • Conclusion (page 58)
    • Christian Sources (page 58)
      • The New Testament Books (page 59)
      • The Four Gospels (page 59)
      • Acts of the Apostles (page 69)
      • The Epistles of Paul (page 70)
      • The Epistle to Hebrews (page 76)
      • The Seven Catholic or Universal Epistles (page 77)
      • Revelation (page 80)
    • The Apostolic Fathers (page 81)
      • The Didache (Teaching of the Apostles) (page 81)
      • Clement of Rome (page 82)
      • Ignatius of Antioch (page 83)
      • Polycarp of Smyrna (page 83)
      • Pseudo-Barnabas (page 83)
      • Papias of Hierapolis (page 84)
      • Epistle to Diognetus (page 84)
      • Hermas (page 85)
    • Early Church Fathers (page 85)
      • Justin Martyr (page 86)
      • Clement of Alexandria (page 87)
      • Tertullian (page 87)
      • Origen (page 88)
      • Eusebius of Caesarea (page 89)
    • Summary and Conclusions (page 90)
  • Chapter 3: Historical Developments (page 91)
    • Relations Between the Christian Church and the Jewish Synagogue (page 93)
      • Rabbinical decisions against the Jewish Christians (page 95)
      • Reactions to and effects of the offical Jewish rejection of Christianity (page 97)
      • Nazarenes and Ebionites (page 97)
      • Christian interpretation of the Bible and the negative view of Judaism (page 98)
      • Old Testament as historic preparation (page 99)
      • Old Testament as prophecy (page 100)
      • Typological interpretation of Scripture (page 102)
      • Allegorical interpretation of Scripture (page 103)
      • The Christian reaction to Hellenistic culture and pagan philosophy (page 104)
      • The Christian reaction to Gnosticism and related heretical doctrines (page 106)
      • Roman persecutions and Christian martyrs (page 108)
      • The Christian Church and the Constantinian peace (page 118)
      • Emperor Constantine and the Christian faith (page 118)
      • Heresies and Councils (page 120)
      • The Barbarian invasions of Europe (page 123)
      • The Islamic conquests (page 127)
    • Summary and Conclusions (page 128)
  • Chapter 4: Messianic and Apocalyptic Doctrines (page 131)
    • Pagan Religions (page 132)
      • Mesopotamian myths of creation and destruction (page 132)
      • The Canaanite cult drama (page 132)
      • Egyptian concepts of perpetual renewal (page 133)
      • Zoroastrian dualism and apocalypticism (page 134)
      • Rome, Virgil's Fourth Ecloge and the Sybil (page 135)
    • Biblical prophecies and Jewish expectations (page 136)
      • Life in Paradise and Adam's sin (page 136)
      • Eschatological prophecies (page 137)
      • Israel's "resurrection" in Ezekiel (page 138)
      • The king as God's Messiah (page 139)
      • Apocalyptic visions in the Prophets (page 141)
      • Daniel: the Son of Man and the Weeks (page 144)
      • Qumran, an eschatological community (page 145)
      • The Apocalyptic writings (page 146)
      • Messianic claims (page 149)
      • The "World to Come" (page 151)
      • Gehenna (page 154)
      • The Judgment (page 155)
    • Christian Messianism and Apocalypticism (page 157)
      • Jesus' Messiahship in the New Testament (page 157)
      • Apocalyptic doctrines in the Gospels (page 160)
      • Early Christian expectation of Jesus' return (page 162)
      • The Antichrist (page 164)
      • John's Apocalypse (page 165)
    • Summary and Conclusions (page 169)
  • Chapter 5: Christian Worship (page 171)
    • Jewish Worship (page 171)
      • Sacrifice and prayer in the Temple (page 171)
      • Jewish festivals (page 173)
      • The Passover (page 175)
      • Eschatological meals (page 176)
      • Ritual ablutions (page 179)
      • Synagogue services (page 180)
    • The Apostolic Church (page 182)
      • The Church, a community of worship (page 182)
      • "Breaking of Bread" (page 183)
      • Baptism and catechesis (page 184)
      • Charismatic gifts bestowed through the laying on of hands (page 186)
      • Sunday and Easter (page 187)
      • Eucharistic celebrations and Agape-meals (page 188)
      • Places of worship (page 191)
      • The origins of the "Offertorium" (page 192)
      • Daily prayers (page 193)
      • Holiness of Marriage (page 195)
      • Unction of the sick (page 196)
      • Death and burial (page 196)
    • Christian Liturgy and Pagan Rites (page 199)
      • Pagan mysteries and Christian Mysteries (page 199)
      • Pagan and profane rites and their influence on Christian liturgy (page 200)
      • The role of the liturgy in the transformation of pagan culture (page 204)
      • The cult of the martyrs (page 206)
      • Christological disputes and their influence upon the liturgy (page 207)
    • Later Developments (page 209)
      • Ecclesiastical and liturgical provinces (page 209)
      • Oriental liturgies (page 213)
      • Latin liturgies (page 214)
    • Summary and Conclusions (page 217)
  • Chapter 6: The Origin and Development of Christian Monasticism (page 221)
    • Biblical and Jewish Antecedents (page 221)
      • Prophetic schools (page 221)
      • The Essenes and the Qumran Community (page 222)
      • The Therapeutae (page 222)
      • Havurot (page 222)
      • Reasons for community life (page 223)
    • Pagan doctrines and movements (page 223)
      • Stoicism (page 223)
      • Pythagoreanism and Orphism (page 224)
      • Neo-Platonism (page 225)
      • Worshippers of Sarapis (page 225)
    • Monasticiasm as a Christian Phenomenon (page 226)
      • Doctrines from the Gospel and Paul (page 226)
      • The ideal of the early community in Jerusalem (page 228)
      • Reaction to the secularization of the Church (page 228)
      • Nostalgia for martyrdom (page 229)
      • Ascetic life as warfare against the devil (page 231)
      • Monasticism and the angelic life (page 232)
    • Eastern Monasticism (page 233)
      • Egypt: Paul, Anthony, and Pachomius, hermits and cenobites (page 233)
      • Palestine, Syria, and Mesopotamia (page 236)
      • Greece and Asia Minor (page 241)
      • Eastern Monastic Spirituality: the Hesychasm (page 243)
    • Western Monasticism (page 246)
      • Italy: Pre-Benedictine and Benedictine monasteries (page 246)
      • North Africa (page 248)
      • Gaul and Spain (page 249)
      • Ireland (page 251)
      • Gregory the Great and the English Mission (page 251)
      • Frisian Monks and the Civilization of Central Europe (page 253)
      • Cluny and its Congregation (page 254)
      • The Cistercian Reform (page 256)
      • Mendicant Orders (page 257)
    • Summary and Conclusions (page 258)
  • Chapter 7: Ancient Christian Art and Architecture (page 261)
    • Origins of Christian Art (page 262)
      • The Jewish Background of Early Christian Art (page 265)
      • The First Manifestations of Christian Art (page 270)
    • Iconography of Early Christian Art (page 273)
      • Old Testament scenes and their typology (page 273)
      • Pagan motifs with new meanings (page 275)
      • New Testament scenes (page 277)
    • The Church Building (page 280)
      • Private houses: the Domus Ecclesia (page 280)
    • The Christian Basilica (page 286)
      • Origins (page 286)
      • Architectural structure (page 287)
      • Other types (page 291)
      • Church interior (page 293)
    • The Baptistery (page 297)
    • Monasteries (page 300)
    • Church decoration (page 303)
      • Reliefs (page 303)
      • Wall Paintings (page 307)
      • Mosaics (page 308)
    • Minor Arts (page 314)
      • Manuscripts (page 314)
      • Metalwork (page 316)
      • Ivories (page 317)
    • Icons (page 319)
      • Textiles (page 320)
    • Summary and Conclusions (page 321)
  • Glossary of Names and Terms (page 323)
  • List of Illustrations (page 343)
  • Bibliography (page 347)
  • Index of Literary References (page 353)
  • Index of Names and Terms (page 359)
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