The ancient Near East refers to early civilizations in a region roughly corresponding to the modern Middle East: Mesopotamia (modern Iraq and Syria), Anatolia (modern Turkey), the Levant (modern Syria, Lebanon, Israel, Palestine, and Jordan), as well as Persia (modern Iran), and Ancient Egypt, from the beginnings of Sumer in the 6th millennium BCE until the region's conquest by Alexander the Great in the 4th century BCE.
This important summary of Garstang’s travels and studies in Anatolia (present-day Turkey) is fully illustrated with nearly 100 photographs as well as maps and plans. This account details the marvels revealed by archaeology in ancient western Asia. The study begins with documentation of the geography of the region, giving the reader a sense of the world as seen by the Hittites of antiquity. Garstang outlines the history of the Hittite period before detailing the monumental architecture of this people. Garstang’s treatment concludes with a substantial history of the Hittites, people referred to in the Bible and in the historical records of other ancient Near Eastern civilizations.
This fifth extract from Sayce’s Origin and Growth of Religion, the topic turns to the “sacred books” of the Babylonians. Beginning with the “Chaldean Rig-Veda,” collections of hymns identified from the earliest days of Assyriology, Sayce also considers the earlier, less developed magical texts. Future considerations – sin, the status of heaven and Hades, and cosmology finish out the essay.
In this second lecture extracted from Sayce’s Origin and Growth of Religion, the renowned Assyriologist specifically considers the Babylonian deity Bel-Merodach. Noting that Cyrus the Great was a worshipper of this deity, the outlook of the priesthood of Bel-Merodach regarding his conquest of Babylon begins the discussion. Sayce then discusses localized versions of Merodach, considering Eridu, Borsippa, and Assur.
As the introductory lecture to his collection of observations on ancient religion, Sayce begins this extract with a consideration of the difficulties of knowing what can be deduced from ancient Mesopotamian religion. Extracted from Sayce’s Origin and Growth of Religion, this booklet will be of interest to those who research the early period of the field of Assyriology in order to learn where various concepts about Mesopotamian religious life have their genesis.
Were issues like economic and political oppression, holy wars, resistance literature, hate-speech, xenophobia and other 21st-century realities already present among the civilizations of the ancient Near East? Prophetic literature and specifically the Book of Nahum in the Old Testament provide a unique perspective on these issues. Through Nahum’s moving poetry and disturbing imagery, oppression is verbalised, deep emotion is uncovered and we are given a glimpse of liberation and new hope in times of darkness. This book will sensitize the reader to a better understanding of the identity and dynamics of oppressed groups, both ancient and modern.
With the characteristic compelling photographs that accompany his work, E. M. Newman here presents his unique outlook on Egypt and the Holy Land. Written with the competence of a professional travel writer, Newman takes the reader through his arrival in Egypt by ship and on a virtual tour of the noted wonders of that land. His impressions of Egypt, Palestine, the Arabian Desert and Sinai are all dutifully recorded. Finishing up with the accounts of his main New Testament sites, Nazareth, the Jordan River, Bethlehem, and Jerusalem, this travelogue contains a wealth of impressions and memories. Illustrated with over 300 photographs, this volume gives a visually descriptive tour of these ancient lands.
This ground-breaking study offers a reassessment of Moses' book of the law from a narrative theory perspective. Concerned for the long-term viability of his people, Moses legislates a public reading of his document which is deposited next to the ark of the covenant as a national testament. Through the mechanics of narrative mediation, the narrator reveals to the reader of Deuteronomy the contents of Moses' enshrined publication. Deuteronomy's simulcast of Moses' book invites external readers to compare and evaluate their readings with story-world readers who access the same text within the Bible's Primary Narrative.
Originally published in two small volumes of Semitic ephemera written in German, this collection of observations of Paul de Lagarde still contains his cogent insights into the world of Semitic linguistics. Critical remarks on the book of Isaiah introduce his characteristic detail on a number of verses in the prophetic book. The second selection concerns the clarification of Akkadian (Chaldean) words occurring in the Hebrew Bible. In the second major section of the work, de Lagarde presents the leaves of the Septuagint of Codex Sarravianus found in Paris. This annotated Greek material comes from the books of Exodus, Leviticus, and Numbers.
In this historic catalogue, Crum presents the Coptic monuments of the Museum of Cairo. Although given a French title, the contents of this book are written in English. Some of the more striking items are presented with beautifully drawn sketches of relevant sections of the source. As a museum book, this catalogue is amply illustrated with 57 black and white plates. A variety of artifacts are described: manuscripts, ostraca, and stelae, and indices round out the utility of this volume. A specialized collection from early Christian Egypt, this book will be welcomed by specialists in Coptic materials still found in their native land.
Originally published as the Hibbert Lectures of 1887, this series of essays covers more than the title suggests. The work of an early explorer of Assyriology, this book traces many of the more familiar motifs and themes from ancient religion back to the ancient Babylonians.
The Computer Working Group of the International Association of Egyptologists has been in existence since 1983. The group focuses on the efforts of Egyptologists to find creative and useful ways of using information technology to aid in the research and teaching of Ancient Egypt. This volume collects the 16 papers presented during the 2008 meeting on topics including databases, complex systems, 3D modelling, textual analysis systems, the uses of the internet for sharing photographs, and bibliography. This publication provides an essential snapsot of the present uses of IT in the study of Ancient Egypt.
Originally the fifth in a series of five lectures delivered at Harvard University, this extract is an early attempt to tackle a formidable subject: the religion of ancient Iraq, or Mesopotamia. In this last essay of the set, Rogers focus on the mythic tradition of Mesopotamia, discussing the myths of Adapa, Ishtar’s descent to the netherworld, and the Gilgamesh epic, especially concentrating on the deluge account. Engaging and informative, Rogers’ narrative is accessible to the specialist and general reader alike.
Originally the fourth in a series of five lectures delivered at Harvard University, this extract is an early attempt to tackle a formidable subject: the religion of ancient Iraq, or Mesopotamia. Noting that sacred writings are nearly universal among religions, Rogers offers a brief exposition on the sacred writings of the ancient Mesopotamians. Engaging and informative, Rogers’ narrative is accessible to the specialist and general reader alike.
Originally the third in a series of five lectures delivered at Harvard University, this extract is an early attempt to tackle a formidable subject: the religion of ancient Iraq, or Mesopotamia. In this essay Rogers considers the great cosmologies of ancient Mesopotamia. In an easy narrative style, he recounts the discovery of the Enuma Elish and providing a brief summary of its contents. He makes a comparison of this cosmology with those of Genesis, demonstrating the interconnectedness of the ancient world of western Asia. Engaging and informative, Rogers’ narrative is accessible to the specialist and general reader alike.
Originally the second in a series of five lectures delivered at Harvard University, this extract is an early attempt to tackle a formidable subject: the religion of ancient Iraq, or Mesopotamia. Rogers introduces the reader to Sumer and Babylonia, noting the early kings and their deities. This essay then engages in an historical rendering of the gods of the dominant cities of Babylonia and Assyria. Engaging and informative, Rogers’ narrative is accessible to the specialist and general reader alike.
Originally the first in a series of five lectures delivered at Harvard University, this extract is an early attempt to tackle a formidable subject: the religion of ancient Iraq, or Mesopotamia. Rogers begins this exploration with a summary of the rediscovery of the religions of Babylonia and Assyria. Step by step he rehearses the rediscovery and recovery of ancient Babylon and Nineveh. Engaging and informative, Rogers’ narrative is accessible to the specialist and general reader alike.
One of the perennial touchstones in the field of archaeology in the ancient Near East, Albright’s work has been endlessly utilized. With a freshness apposite to its position among the pioneering works of a new discipline, this contribution laid the groundwork for countless future studies. Albright deftly describes how ancient Palestine was discovered, his famous excavation of Tell Beit Mirsim, and the relevance of archaeology for understanding the Bible. In setting the stage for what follows in the archaeological drama in Israel and throughout the Middle East, this work justly deserves a place in the Gorgias Classic Archaeological Reprints.
The astute observations of linguist Paul de Lagarde on Persian manuscript in Europe predating 1700 make an essential catalogue for anyone interested in the state of the field in the late 19th century. Citing each manuscript, Lagarde provides an annotated catalogue of 61 pieces that include descriptions from the initial publication of each text as well as his own observations. His study gives a sense of importance of each piece considered, demonstrating their relationships with other known documents. Also included in this unique study are the Judeo-Persian versions of the prophets Isaiah, Jeremiah, and Ezekiel (the latter only through chapter 9).
This historic catalogue documents the oriental manuscripts of what is now the Saxon State Library at the Dresden University of Technology. Formerly the Royal Library of Dresden, this repository houses numerous manuscripts from antiquity. Catalogued before the tragic bombing of Dresden during WWII, this historic record, written in Latin, briefly describes the nearly 600 documents in the collections of Dresden and Guelferbytan at that time. Valued more as a historical memento, this catalogue provides a sense of importance of the manuscripts housed in the library of the early 19th century capital of Saxony. Adding to the utility of his register are the indices to the codices included with the collection.
This book examines the previously unexplored sources of the eleventh-century Byzantine service of Christ the Bridegroom by locating its origins in the liturgical environment of third-century Christian Syria and Mesopotamia, and especially in the baptistry of the Christian House at Dura-Europos, as well as in the texts of the Acts of Thomas, the Gospel of Philip and the Symposium by Methodius of Olympus. More specifically, Pagoulatos analyzes the bridal initiation service (the earliest known Iconophile service) of the Dura-Europos baptistery, focusing on the role that the images played in it.
The Coups of Hazael and Jehu offers a narrative reconstruction of the events surrounding the rise of Hazael to the throne of Aram-Damascus and Jehu to the throne of Israel in the mid-eighth century. These near-simultaneous dynastic changes were parts of a major shift in the political, military, and economic structure of the Levant, which took place as the mighty armies of Assyria pushed into the region. The book argues that Jehu’s bloody overthrow of Joram and Hazael’s irregular seizure of power after the death of his predecessor were not independent events, but responses to the Assyrian threat.
Particularly valuable to students of archaeology in the ancient Near East are the old accounts of cities uncovered by archaeologists and historians of the nineteenth century. Meyer offers as comprehensive a history of Gaza as the material of his time would allow. This ambitious account covers what was known of Gaza in Palestine from the earliest records up through the nineteenth century. Meyer divides his treatment into two parts: the first looks at the population and historical periods of the city; the second is concerned with concepts and physical remains: cults; deities; the Gaza calendar; inscriptions; coins; and other artifacts.
Trumbull’s tome was among the first to explore how looking at the Bible from the perspective of those in Palestine might influence the outlook of Western readers. In this volume Trumbull examines the social customs, religious practices, and basic concepts of those living in nineteenth-century Palestine to demonstrate how they bear upon modern understandings of the Bible.
This study focuses on the imagery of meals and feasting in the Baal Myth and Kirta and Aqhat epics. Utilizing contemporary approaches to ritual, these meal events reveal the manner in which ritual behavior described and defined the different social relationships with the Ugaritic pantheon and the interactions between the divine and mortal realms. This study demonstrates the role successful ritual behavior played in the organization and presentation of characters within the narratives, as well as the role of unsuccessful or failed rituals associated with the meal event, which resulted in social chaos and confusion.
Gorgias Press is an independent academic publisher specializing in the history and religion of the Middle East and the larger pre-modern world. We are run by scholars, for scholars, who believe strongly in "Publishing for the Sake of Knowledge."