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Exegesis in the Targum of Psalms


The Old, the New, and the Rewritten


This volume illustrates how Targum Psalms creatively interprets selected psalms and how those interpretations relate to other Jewish and Christian traditions, including early translations of the psalms, rabbinic Midrashim, the New Testament and early Church Fathers. The study of these Psalms suggests viewing Targum Psalms as a creative partner in the world of biblical interpretation, as opposed to a compilation of already existing midrashic material. Edwards portrays the Targum as a link between the written and oral Torah that leads its readers on a path to tradition.
Publisher: Gorgias Press LLC
Availability: In stock
SKU (ISBN): 978-1-4632-0381-8
  • *
Publication Status: In Print

Publication Date: Jun 11,2014
Interior Color: Black
Trim Size: 6 x 9
Page Count: 296
Languages: English, Hebrew
ISBN: 978-1-4632-0381-8
$101.00

The Old, the New and the Rewritten is the first book-length study focusing on the Targum of Psalms in more than 50 years. Edwards focuses on the exegetical aspects of the Targum through a detailed study of fifteen psalms and examines how the Targum relates to other Jewish and Christian exegetical traditions that have drawn upon the book of Psalms. The study of these Psalms suggests viewing Targum Psalms as a creative partner in the world of biblical interpretation, as opposed to a compilation of already existing midrashic material. Edwards portrays the Targum as a link between the written and oral Torah that leads its readers on a path to tradition. Extensive comparison is made with all earlier translations of the book of Psalms, as well as other parts of the Targum tradition. This study highlights these related traditions and explains how they came about. The question of using Targum Psalms in New Testament scholarship is discussed, as well as the possibility of any reactionary exegesis to Christian messianic interpretations connected to many Psalms. The book not only illustrates the creative diversity of the Targum, but also highlights the numerous areas of research that await future scholars if this long-neglected part of the Targum tradition is to be fully understood and appreciated. Texts with apparatus and translations of the fifteen Psalms selected for research are included in an appendix.

Timothy Edwards received an MA in Jewish Civilization from the Hebrew University (Jerusalem) and a D.Phil from Oxford University. He has taught at Bristol University and is currently teaching at the Oxford Centre for Hebrew and Jewish Studies.

The Old, the New and the Rewritten is the first book-length study focusing on the Targum of Psalms in more than 50 years. Edwards focuses on the exegetical aspects of the Targum through a detailed study of fifteen psalms and examines how the Targum relates to other Jewish and Christian exegetical traditions that have drawn upon the book of Psalms. The study of these Psalms suggests viewing Targum Psalms as a creative partner in the world of biblical interpretation, as opposed to a compilation of already existing midrashic material. Edwards portrays the Targum as a link between the written and oral Torah that leads its readers on a path to tradition. Extensive comparison is made with all earlier translations of the book of Psalms, as well as other parts of the Targum tradition. This study highlights these related traditions and explains how they came about. The question of using Targum Psalms in New Testament scholarship is discussed, as well as the possibility of any reactionary exegesis to Christian messianic interpretations connected to many Psalms. The book not only illustrates the creative diversity of the Targum, but also highlights the numerous areas of research that await future scholars if this long-neglected part of the Targum tradition is to be fully understood and appreciated. Texts with apparatus and translations of the fifteen Psalms selected for research are included in an appendix.

Timothy Edwards received an MA in Jewish Civilization from the Hebrew University (Jerusalem) and a D.Phil from Oxford University. He has taught at Bristol University and is currently teaching at the Oxford Centre for Hebrew and Jewish Studies.

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Timothy Edwards

  • Table of Contents (page 5)
  • Preface (page 11)
  • Acknowledgments (page 13)
  • Abbreviations (page 17)
    • Journals, Publishers, and Reference works (page 17)
    • Biblical and Rabbinic Texts (page 17)
    • Manuscripts (page 18)
  • 1. Introduction (page 19)
    • 1.1 Tg.Ps. and the Targum Tradition (page 22)
      • 1.1a The Language of Tg.Ps. (page 26)
      • 1.1b The Style of Tg.Ps. (page 27)
      • 1.1c The Date of Tg.Ps. (page 29)
      • 1.1d Tg.Ps. in Rabbinic Literature (page 30)
      • 1.1e Tg.Ps. and Medieval References (page 31)
    • 1.2 The Manuscript Tradition of Tg.Ps. (page 32)
      • 1.2a Manuscripts used for this Study (page 33)
    • 1.3 Past Research into Tg.Ps. (page 34)
    • 1.4 Scope of this Study (page 37)
      • 1.4a Psalms Selected for Research (page 37)
    • 1.5 Methodology (page 39)
    • 1.6 The Structure of this Study (page 41)
  • 2. Tg.Ps. and Early Bible Translations (page 43)
    • 2.1 Possible Dependence upon Earlier Translations (page 46)
      • 2.1a Tg.Ps. 92:13–15 and Aquila (page 46)
    • 2.2 Shared Vorlage Differing from the Masoretic Text (page 52)
      • 2.2a Tg.Ps. 2:2 and the LXX (page 52)
      • 2.2b Tg.Ps. 45:4 and 118:6,12 (page 54)
      • 2.2c Tg.Ps. and Qumran Biblical Texts (page 56)
      • 2.2d Summary (page 57)
    • 2.3 Shared Traditions of Translation (page 57)
      • 2.3a Tg.Ps. and Symmachus (page 57)
      • 2.3b Tg.Ps. and the Peshitta (page 64)
      • 2.3c Tg.Ps. 82:1 and Aquila (page 66)
      • 2.3d Tg.Ps. 2:7a Aquila, Theodotion, Jerome and the LXX (page 67)
      • 2.3e Tg.Ps. 137:3 Symmachus and Jerome (page 68)
      • 2.3f Summary (page 70)
    • 2.4 Conclusions (page 71)
  • 3. Tg.Ps. and the Targum Tradition (page 73)
    • 3.1 Tg.Ps. and the Targumim of the Torah (page 76)
      • 3.1a Tg.Ps. 24:4 and FT Ex 20:7 (page 76)
      • 3.1b Tg.Ps. 48:3 and TO Lev 1:11 (page 78)
      • 3.1c Tg.Ps. 80:16 and the Targumim of Gen 49:11 (page 80)
      • 3.1d Tg.Ps. 81:6, Targum Onkelos, and Ps.Jn. Gen 41:45 (page 84)
      • 3.1e Tg.Ps. 81:7, TN Gen 40:18, and Tg.Ps.Jn. Gen 37:17 (page 86)
      • 3.1f Tg.Ps. 81:10 and the Targumim of Deut 32:12 (page 88)
      • 3.1g Tg.Ps. 93:2 and TN Gen 1:1 (page 89)
    • 3.3 Conclusions (page 102)
  • 4. Tg.Ps. and Rabbinic Literature (page 105)
    • 4.1 Tg.Ps. and Parallel Rabbinic Traditions (page 106)
      • 4.1a Tg.Ps. 1:3 and BT Avodah Zarah 19a (page 106)
      • 4.1b Tg.Ps. 1:5 and m. Sanhedrin 10:3 (page 109)
      • 4.1c Tg.Ps. 68:10 and BT Shabbat 88b (page 114)
      • 4.1d Tg.Ps. 81:4 and BT Rosh Hashanah 34a (page 116)
      • 4.1e Tg.Ps. 82:1–2 and Tanhuma ?????? 6 (page 118)
      • 4.1f Tg.Ps. 82:6–7 and Sifre Devarim 306 (page 122)
      • 4.1g Tg.Ps. 92:1 and Qoheleth Rab. 1:2 (page 124)
      • 4.1h Tg.Ps. 137:3–5 and Pesikta Rabbati 136a (page 126)
      • 4.1i Summary (page 129)
    • 4.2 Tg.Ps. and Creativity within Rabbinic Traditions (page 131)
      • 4.2a Tg.Ps. 68:6–7 (page 131)
      • 4.2b Tg.Ps. 68:13–14 (page 135)
      • 4.2c Tg.Ps. 68:15 (page 137)
      • 4.2d Tg.Ps. 80:1 (page 138)
      • 4.2e Tg.Ps. 81:6 (page 139)
      • 4.2f Tg.Ps. 93:3–4 (page 142)
      • 4.2g Summary (page 144)
    • 4.4 Conclusions (page 145)
  • 5. Unique Traditions in Tg.Ps. (page 147)
    • 5.1 Tg.Ps. 24:7–9 (page 147)
    • 5.2 Tg.Ps. 48 (page 152)
    • 5.3 Tg.Ps. 80:4,8, 20 (page 162)
    • 5.4 Tg.Ps. 94:9–10 (page 163)
    • 5.5 Conclusions (page 166)
  • 6. Tg.Ps. and Midrash Tehillim (page 167)
    • 6.1 Parallel Interpretations Unique to Tg.Ps. and Midrash Tehillim (page 169)
      • 6.1a Tg.Ps. 2:7 and Midrash Tehillim 2:9. (page 169)
      • 6.1b Tg.Ps. 110:1 and Midrash Tehillim 110:5 (page 173)
      • 6.1c Tg.Ps. 68:12 and Midrash Tehillim 68:6 (page 175)
      • 6.1d Tg.Ps. 81:7 and Midrash Tehillim 81:7 (page 177)
    • 6.2 Test Case: Tg. Ps.82 and Midrash Tehillim 82—A Detailed Comparison (page 179)
      • 6.2a Tg.Ps. 82:1 and Midrash Tehillim 82:1 (page 182)
      • 6.2b Tg.Ps. 82:2–4 and Midrash Tehillim 82:2 (page 183)
      • 6.2c Tg.Ps. 82:5–8 and Midrash Tehillim 82:3 (page 185)
      • 6.2d Ps 82 in Tg.Ps. and Midrash Tehillim (page 185)
    • 6.3 Conclusions (page 186)
  • 7. Tg.Ps., the New Testament, and Early Christian Exegesis of the Psalms (page 187)
    • 7.1 Tg.Ps. and Contemporary Exegesis (page 188)
      • 7.1a Tg.Ps. 68 and Ephesians (page 189)
      • 7.1b Tg.Ps 118 and the Rejected Messiah (page 192)
      • 7.1c Tg.Ps. 80, the ‘Son of Man’ and the Messiah (page 201)
      • 7.1d Summary (page 202)
    • 7.2 Tg.Ps. and Reactionary Exegesis (page 202)
      • 7.2a Tg.Ps. 45 and the Messiah (page 203)
      • 7.2b Tg.Ps. 2 and the Begotten Messiah (page 210)
      • 7.2c Tg.Ps. 110, the Messiah, and David (page 214)
    • 7.3 Conclusions (page 222)
  • 8. Conclusions (page 225)
    • 8.1 The Old—Tg.Ps. and Existing Interpretive Traditions on the Psalms (page 225)
    • 8.2 The New—Tg.Ps. and Unique Interpretations on the Psalms (page 228)
    • 8.3 The Rewritten—Tg.Ps. and the Creative Adaptation of Tradition (page 228)
    • 8.4 The Date, Style and Manuscript Tradition of Tg.Ps. (page 229)
      • 8.4a The Date of Tg.Ps. (page 229)
      • 8.4b The Manuscript Tradition of Tg.Ps. (page 229)
      • 8.4c The Style of Tg.Ps. (page 230)
      • 8.5 Future Research on Tg.Ps. (page 230)
    • 8.6 Conclusion (page 231)
  • Appendix: Texts, Apparatus and Translation of Psalms Studied (page 235)
    • Psalm 1 (page 235)
    • Apparatus (page 235)
    • Translation (page 236)
    • Psalm 2 (page 236)
    • Apparatus (page 237)
    • Translation (page 237)
    • Psalm 24 (page 237)
    • Apparatus (page 238)
    • Translation (page 238)
    • Psalm 45 (page 239)
    • Apparatus (page 240)
    • Translation (page 240)
    • Psalm 48 (page 242)
    • Apparatus (page 242)
    • Translation (page 242)
    • Psalm 68 (page 243)
    • Apparatus (page 245)
    • Translation (page 246)
    • Psalm 80 (page 250)
    • Apparatus (page 251)
    • Translation (page 251)
    • Psalm 81 (page 252)
    • Apparatus (page 253)
    • Translation (page 253)
    • Psalm 82 (page 255)
    • Apparatus (page 255)
    • Translation (page 255)
    • Psalm 92 (page 256)
    • Apparatus (page 256)
    • Translation (page 257)
    • Psalm 93 (page 258)
    • Apparatus (page 258)
    • Translation (page 258)
    • Psalm 94 (page 258)
    • Apparatus (page 259)
    • Translation (page 259)
    • Psalm 110 (page 261)
    • Apparatus (page 261)
    • Translation (page 262)
    • Psalm 118 (page 263)
    • Apparatus (page 264)
    • Translation (page 264)
    • Psalm 137 (page 266)
    • Apparatus (page 266)
    • Translation (page 267)
  • Bibliography (page 269)
    • A. Primary Sources (page 269)
      • 1. Bible (page 269)
      • 2. Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha, Second Temple Literature (page 269)
      • 3. Rabbinic Sources (page 270)
      • 4. Aramaic Targum Texts (page 270)
      • 5. Church Fathers (page 271)
    • B. Secondary Sources (page 273)
    • C. Electronic resources (page 285)
    • D. Dictionaries, Concordances, Grammars and Indicies (page 286)
  • General Index (page 287)
  • Index of Ancient Sources (page 289)
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