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Greek Indicative Verbs in the Christian Palestinian Aramaic Gospels


Translation Technique and the Aramaic Verbal System


As virtually all Christian Palestinian Aramaic texts consist of translations, one cannot adequately discuss its verbal system without taking into account translation technique. The present study consists of a study of the translation of Greek Indicative verbs in the Christian Palestinian Aramaic Gospels and its implications for the understanding of the Christian Palestinian Aramaic verbal system.
Publisher: Gorgias Press LLC
Availability: In stock
SKU (ISBN): 978-1-61143-895-6
  • *
Publication Status: In Print

Publication Date: May 9,2013
Interior Color: Black
Trim Size: 6 x 9
Page Count: 218
Language: English
ISBN: 978-1-61143-895-6
$173.00
$103.80

The recent publication of texts from the early and middle periods of Christian Palestinian Aramaic makes possible a more accurate description of the syntax of this form of Aramaic than heretofore. However, since virtually all CPA texts consist of translations, one cannot adequately discuss its verbal system without taking into account translation technique. Therefore, the present study consists of a study of the translation of Greek Indicative verbs in the CPA Gospels and its implications for the understanding of the CPA verbal system. Chapter one explains the methodology and the conventions used in this book. Chapters two to seven describe the translation of six Greek Indicative tenses, i.e., the Imperfect, Present, Future, Aorist, Perfect, and Pluperfect, along with related periphrastic verbal phrases. Chapter eight then explores the implications of the previous chapters for the understanding of both translation technique and the CPA verbal system. The presence of textual, stylistic, and/or idiomatic variation in an otherwise literal translation provides useful clues concerning both the nature of the CPA translation and the functions of CPA verbs. Hence, the evidence afforded by translation technique concerning the syntax and morphosyntax of the CPA verbal system is discussed in light of synchronic and diachronic comparative evidence. Chapter nine offers some concluding thoughts.

Tarsee Li is Professor of Hebrew Bible and Biblical Languages in the School of Religion at Oakwood University. His research interests include Aramaic and Semitics.

The recent publication of texts from the early and middle periods of Christian Palestinian Aramaic makes possible a more accurate description of the syntax of this form of Aramaic than heretofore. However, since virtually all CPA texts consist of translations, one cannot adequately discuss its verbal system without taking into account translation technique. Therefore, the present study consists of a study of the translation of Greek Indicative verbs in the CPA Gospels and its implications for the understanding of the CPA verbal system. Chapter one explains the methodology and the conventions used in this book. Chapters two to seven describe the translation of six Greek Indicative tenses, i.e., the Imperfect, Present, Future, Aorist, Perfect, and Pluperfect, along with related periphrastic verbal phrases. Chapter eight then explores the implications of the previous chapters for the understanding of both translation technique and the CPA verbal system. The presence of textual, stylistic, and/or idiomatic variation in an otherwise literal translation provides useful clues concerning both the nature of the CPA translation and the functions of CPA verbs. Hence, the evidence afforded by translation technique concerning the syntax and morphosyntax of the CPA verbal system is discussed in light of synchronic and diachronic comparative evidence. Chapter nine offers some concluding thoughts.

Tarsee Li is Professor of Hebrew Bible and Biblical Languages in the School of Religion at Oakwood University. His research interests include Aramaic and Semitics.

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Contributor Biography

Tarsee Li

Tarsee Li is Professor of Hebrew Bible and Biblical Languages in the School of Religion at Oakwood University. His research interests include Aramaic and Semitics.

  • Table of Contents (page 5)
  • Preface (page 11)
  • Acknowledgments (page 13)
  • 1. Introduction (page 15)
    • 1.1. Terminology (page 16)
    • 1.2. Textual Basis (page 24)
    • 1.3 Methodology (page 26)
  • 2. The CPA Translation of the Greek Imperfect Indicative (page 29)
    • 2.1. Translation of Regular Greek Progressive Imperfects (page 30)
      • 2.1.1. Translated by CPA ??? + Participle (page 31)
      • 2.1.2. Translated by CPA Passive Participles (page 33)
      • 2.1.3. Translated by CPA ??? + Verbal Adjective (page 33)
      • 2.1.4. An Ambiguous Instance (page 34)
      • 2.1.5. Instances with Textual Variants or Interference (page 34)
    • 2.2. Translation of Regular Greek Non Progressive Imperfects (page 35)
      • 2.2.1. Stative Continuous Imperfect (page 36)
        • 2.2.1.1. Translated by CPA + Principle (page 36)
        • 2.2.1.2. Translated by CPA Participles (page 37)
        • 2.2.1.3. An Ambiguous Instance (page 37)
        • 2.2.1.4. Instances Requiring Additional Comment (page 37)
        • 2.2.1.5. An Instance with Textual Variants (page 38)
      • 2.2.2. Habitual Imperfect (page 38)
        • 2.2.2.1. Translated by CPA ??? + Participle (page 38)
        • 2.2.2.2. Translated by CPA Participles (page 39)
        • 2.2.2.3. Translated by CPA Perfects (page 39)
        • 2.2.2.4. Ambiguous Instances (page 40)
        • 2.2.2.5. An Instance with Textual Variants (page 40)
      • 2.2.3. Inceptive Imperfect (page 41)
        • 2.2.3.1. Translated by CPA ??? + Participle (page 41)
        • 2.2.3.2. An Instance with Textual Variants (page 41)
      • 2.2.4. Tendential Imperfect (page 42)
        • 2.2.4.1. Translated by CPA ??? + Participle (page 42)
        • 2.2.4.2. Instances with Textual Variants (page 42)
    • 2.3. Translation of Special Types of Greek Imperfects (page 42)
      • 2.3.1 Periphrastic Imperfect (page 43)
        • 2.3.1.1. Progressive Periphrastic Imperfects (page 43)
        • 2.3.1.2. Non-Progressive Periphrastic Imperfects (page 44)
      • 2.3.2. Imperfect Indicative of e?µ? as a Simple Verb (page 44)
        • 2.3.2.1. e?µ? with a Noun Phrase Predicate (page 45)
        • 2.3.2.2. e?µ? with an Adjectival Predicate (page 47)
        • 2.3.2.3. e?µ? with an Adverbial Predicate (page 48)
        • 2.3.2.4. e?µ? with a Prepositional Phrase Predicate (page 48)
        • 2.3.2.5. e?µ? in Possessive Expressions (page 49)
      • 2.3.3. Imperfect Indicative of ??? Expressing Possession (page 49)
      • 2.3.4. Imperfect Indicative of Verbs That FrequentlyIntroduce Direct Speech (page 50)
    • 2.4. Non-Active Instances in Greek and CPA (page 52)
      • 2.4.1. Deponent Verbs (page 52)
      • 2.4.2. Non-Deponent Non-Active Verbs (page 55)
      • 2.4.3. Active Verbs Translated as Non-Active in CPA (page 56)
    • 2.5. Summary (page 57)
  • 3. The CPA Translation of the Greek Present Indicative (page 59)
    • 3.1. Translation of True Greek Presents (page 62)
      • 3.1.1. Translated by CPA Pronoun + Participle (page 62)
      • 3.1.2. Translated by CPA Participles (page 65)
      • 3.1.3. Translated by CPA Passive Participles (page 66)
      • 3.1.4. Translated by CPA Imperfects (page 67)
      • 3.1.5. Translated by CPA Pronoun + Verbal Adjective (page 67)
      • 3.1.6. Translated by CPA Nominal Expressions (page 68)
      • 3.1.7. Instances with Textual Variants (page 69)
    • 3.2. Translation of Greek Historical Presents (page 70)
      • 3.2.1. Translated by CPA Perfects (page 71)
      • 3.2.2. Translated by CPA Pronoun + Participle (page 72)
      • 3.2.3. Translated by CPA Participles (page 72)
      • 3.2.4. Ambivalent Instances (page 73)
      • 3.2.5. Translated by CPA ??? + Participle (page 74)
      • 3.2.6. Translated by CPA ??? + Verbal Adjective (page 75)
      • 3.2.7. Instances with Textual Variants (page 75)
      • 3.2.8. An Additional Instance (page 76)
    • 3.3. Translation of Greek Futuristic Presents (page 76)
      • 3.3.1. Translated by CPA Pronoun + Participle (page 77)
      • 3.3.2. Translated by CPA Participles (page 77)
      • 3.3.3. Translated by CPA Imperfects (page 78)
      • 3.3.4. Instances with Textual Variants (page 78)
    • 3.4. Translation of Special Types of Greek Presents (page 80)
      • 3.4.1. Present Indicative in Indirect Discourse (page 80)
      • 3.4.2. Present Indicative of Past Actions Still in Progress (page 81)
      • 3.4.3. Periphrastic Present (page 82)
      • 3.4.4. Present Indicative of e?µ? as a Simple Verb (page 83)
        • 3.4.4.1. e?µ? with a Noun Phrase Predicate (page 84)
        • 3.4.4.2. e?µ? with an Adjectival Predicate (page 87)
        • 3.4.4.3. e?µ? with an Adverbial Predicate (page 90)
        • 3.4.4.4. e?µ? with a Prepositional Phrase Predicate (page 91)
        • 3.4.4.5. e?µ? without an Expressed Predicate (page 92)
        • 3.4.4.6. e?µ? in Special Expressions (page 93)
      • 3.4.5. Present Indicative of ??? Expressing Possession (page 94)
      • 3.4.6. The Verbs de? and ??est?? (page 95)
      • 3.4.7. The Verb ??? (page 96)
      • 3.4.8. Present Indicative of Verbs That Frequently IntroduceDirect Speech (page 96)
    • 3.5. Non-Active Instances in Greek and CPA (page 100)
      • 3.5.1. Deponent Verbs (page 100)
      • 3.5.2. Non-Deponent Non-Active Verbs (page 103)
      • 3.5.3. Active Verbs Translated as Non-Active in CPA (page 106)
    • 3.6. Summary (page 107)
  • 4. The CPA Translation of the Greek Future Indicative (page 111)
    • 4.1. Translation of Regular Future Indicatives (page 111)
      • 4.1.1. Translated by CPA Imperfects (page 111)
      • 4.1.2. Translated by CPA Pronoun + Participle (page 112)
      • 4.1.3. Translated by CPA Participles (page 113)
      • 4.1.4. Translated by CPA Imperfect of ??? + Participle (page 114)
      • 4.1.5. Translated by CPA Passive Participles (page 115)
      • 4.1.6. Instances with Textual Variants (page 115)
    • 4.2. Translation of Special Types of Greek Futures (page 116)
      • 4.2.1. Periphrastic Future (page 117)
      • 4.2.2. Future Verb Phrases with µ???? (page 117)
      • 4.2.3. Future Indicative of eern? as a Simple Verb (page 119)
        • 4.2.3.1. e?µ? with a Noun Phrase Predicate (page 119)
        • 4.2.3.2. e?µ? with an Adjectival Predicate (page 120)
        • 4.2.3.3. e?µ? with an Adverbial Predicate (page 121)
        • 4.2.3.4. e?µ? with a Prepositional Phrase Predicate (page 122)
        • 4.2.3.5. e?µ? without an Expressed Predicate (page 122)
        • 4.2.3.6. e?µ? in Possessive Expressions (page 123)
    • 4.3. Non-Active Instances in Greek and CPA (page 123)
      • 4.3.1. Deponent Verbs (page 123)
      • 4.3.2. Non-Deponent Non-Active Verbs (page 125)
      • 4.3.3. Active Verbs Translated as Non-Active in CPA (page 126)
    • 4.4. Summary (page 127)
  • 5. The CPA Translation of the Greek Aorist Indicative (page 129)
    • 5.1. Translation of Regular Greek Aorist Indicatives (page 129)
      • 5.1.1. Translated by CPA Perfects (page 129)
      • 5.1.2. Translated by CPA ??? + Participle (page 133)
      • 5.1.3. Translated by CPA Passive Participles (page 134)
      • 5.1.4. Translated by CPA Pronoun + Participle (page 134)
      • 5.1.5. Translated by CPA Participles (page 135)
      • 5.1.6. An Ambiguous Instance (page 136)
      • 5.1.7. Translated by CPA Imperfects (page 137)
      • 5.1.8. Instances that Involve Textual Variants (page 138)
    • 5.2. Translation of Special Types of Greek Aorists (page 139)
      • 5.2.1. Aorist Indicative of ??? Expressing Possession (page 139)
      • 5.2.2. Aorist Indicative of Verbs That Frequently Introduce Direct Speech (page 140)
    • 5.3. Non-Active Instances in Greek and CPA (page 142)
      • 5.3.1. Deponent Verbs (page 142)
      • 5.3.2. Non-Deponent Non-Active Verbs (page 144)
      • 5.3.3. Active Verbs Translated as Non-Active in CPA (page 145)
    • 5.4. Summary (page 145)
  • 6. The CPA Translation of the Greek Perfect Indicative (page 147)
    • 6.1. Translation of Regular Greek Perfect Indicatives (page 147)
      • 6.1.1. Active Perfect Indicatives (page 148)
        • 6.1.1.1. Translated by CPA Perfects (page 148)
        • 6.1.1.2. Ambiguous Instances (page 148)
      • 6.1.2. Non-Active Perfect Indicatives (page 150)
        • 6.1.2.1. Translated by CPA Passive Participles (page 150)
        • 6.1.2.2. Translated by CPA ??? and T-Stem Principle (page 152)
        • 6.1.2.3. An Instance Involving a CPA Addition (page 152)
    • 6.2. Translation of Special Types of Greek Perfects (page 153)
      • 6.2.1. Perfect Indicative Verbs That Express the PresentTense (page 153)
      • 6.2.2. Periphrastic Perfect (page 154)
    • 6.3. Summary (page 155)
  • 7. The CPA Translation of the Greek Pluperfect Indicative (page 157)
    • 7.1. Translation of Regular Greek Pluperfect Indicatives (page 157)
      • 7.1.1. Translated by CPA Perfects (page 157)
      • 7.1.2. Translated by CPA ??? + Participle (page 158)
    • 7.2. Translation of Special Types of Greek Pluperfects (page 159)
      • 7.2.1. Pluperfect Indicative Verbs That Express the SimplePast Tense (page 159)
      • 7.2.2. Periphrastic Pluperfect (page 161)
    • 7.3. The CPA Translation of the Greek Periphrastic Future Perfect (page 163)
    • 7.4 Summary (page 164)
  • 8. Translation Technique and CPA Verbal Function (page 165)
    • 8.1. Observations on Translation Technique (page 165)
    • 8.2. Observations on the CPA Verbal System (page 168)
      • 8.2.1. The CPA Perfect (page 168)
      • 8.2.2. The CPA Imperfect (page 170)
      • 8.2.3. The CPA Participles (page 173)
        • 8.2.3.1. ??? + Participle (page 174)
        • 8.2.3.2. (Pronoun +) Participle (page 176)
      • 8.2.4. The CPA Passive Participle (page 185)
      • 8.2.5. The CPA qa??il Verbal Adjective (page 190)
      • 8.2.6. CPA Conditional Clauses (page 192)
        • 8.2.6.1. Counterfactual Conditions (page 193)
        • 8.2.6.2. Factual conditions (page 195)
    • 8.3. Observations on CPA Nominal Clauses and Clauses With ??? (page 197)
    • 8.4. Observations on Textual Issues (page 201)
  • 9. Conclusion (page 203)
  • Bibliography (page 205)
  • Index of Passages Cited (page 215)
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