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This volume presents a description of the Neo-Aramaic dialect that was spoken by the Jews of Sanandaj in western Iran, but which is now virtually extinct. The material for the volume was gathered firsthand in fieldwork conducted with the last remaining speakers in Israel. The volume consists of a detailed grammatical description, a corpus of transcribed texts, including folktales, historical accounts and portrayals of customs, and an extensive glossary.
Publisher: Gorgias Press LLC
Availability: In stock
SKU (ISBN): 978-1-60724-134-8
  • *
Publication Status: In Print

Publication Date: Oct 28,2009
Interior Color: Black
Trim Size: 6 x 9
Page Count: 651
Language: English
ISBN: 978-1-60724-134-8
$243.00

This volume presents a description of the Neo-Aramaic dialect that was spoken by the Jews of the town of Sanandaj in western Iran. The Jewish community in Sanandaj dwindled in number throughout the 20th century and now there are no Jews left in the town. The few surviving speakers live, for the most part, in Israel. The material for this volume was gathered firsthand in fieldwork conducted with the last remaining speakers. This Neo-Aramaic dialect contains a number of archaic features that have been lost in most other Neo-Aramaic dialects, such as a distinction in form between transitive and intransitive verbs in the past tenses. The dialect of Jews differs radically from the Neo-Aramaic dialect that was spoken by a Christian community in the town. The volume consists of a detailed grammatical description, a corpus of transcribed texts, including folktales, historical accounts and portrayals of customs, and an extensive glossary.

Geoffrey Khan holds a Ph.D. in Semitic Languages, from the School of Oriental and African Studies, London (1984). He is currently Professor of Semitic Philology, at the University of Cambridge. In 1998, he was elected Fellow of the British Academy and in 2004 was awarded the Lidzbarski Gold Medal for Semitic Philology.

This volume presents a description of the Neo-Aramaic dialect that was spoken by the Jews of the town of Sanandaj in western Iran. The Jewish community in Sanandaj dwindled in number throughout the 20th century and now there are no Jews left in the town. The few surviving speakers live, for the most part, in Israel. The material for this volume was gathered firsthand in fieldwork conducted with the last remaining speakers. This Neo-Aramaic dialect contains a number of archaic features that have been lost in most other Neo-Aramaic dialects, such as a distinction in form between transitive and intransitive verbs in the past tenses. The dialect of Jews differs radically from the Neo-Aramaic dialect that was spoken by a Christian community in the town. The volume consists of a detailed grammatical description, a corpus of transcribed texts, including folktales, historical accounts and portrayals of customs, and an extensive glossary.

Geoffrey Khan holds a Ph.D. in Semitic Languages, from the School of Oriental and African Studies, London (1984). He is currently Professor of Semitic Philology, at the University of Cambridge. In 1998, he was elected Fellow of the British Academy and in 2004 was awarded the Lidzbarski Gold Medal for Semitic Philology.

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Contributor Biography

Geoffrey Khan

Geoffrey Khan has recently been elected 'Regius Professor of Hebrew' at the University of Cambridge. He was elected Fellow of the British Academy in 1998 and Honorary Fellow of the Academy of the Hebrew Language in 2011. In 2004 he was awarded the Lidzbarski Gold Medal for Semitic Philology.

  • Dedication Page (page 5)
  • Table of Contents (page 7)
  • Preface (page 21)
  • Introduction (page 23)
    • The Jews of Sanandaj (page 23)
    • The Dialect of the Jews of Sanandaj (page 25)
    • The Affiliation of the Dialect (page 25)
    • The Iranian Sub-groups of NENA (page 27)
    • Differences within the Western Iranian Sub-group (page 31)
    • The Influence of Kurdish and Persian (page 33)
    • Informants and Texts (page 34)
    • The Grammar (page 35)
  • 1. Phonology (page 37)
    • 1.1. Consonant Phonemes (page 37)
    • 1.1.1. Phoneme Inventory (page 37)
    • 1.1.2. Notes on the Phonetic Realization of the Consonants (page 38)
    • 1.2. Phonetic Processes Relating to Voicing (page 43)
    • 1.3. Historical Background of the Consonants (page 44)
    • 1.3.1. The BGDKPT Consonants (page 44)
    • 1.3.2. Emphatic Consonants (page 46)
    • 1.3.3. Laryngals and Pharyngals (page 47)
    • 1.3.4. Weakening of *z (page 52)
    • 1.3.5. /c/ (page 52)
    • 1.3.6. /j/ (page 53)
    • 1.4. Consonant Gemination (page 53)
    • 1.5. Vowels and Syllable Structure (page 55)
    • 1.5.1. Vowel Phoneme Inventory (page 55)
    • 1.5.2. The Quality of Vowels (page 56)
    • 1.5.3. Syllabic Patterns (page 65)
    • 1.5.4. Word-Internal Syllable Boundaries (page 68)
    • 1.5.5. Vowel Length (page 69)
    • 1.6. Word Stress (page 75)
    • 1.6.1. Nominals (page 75)
    • 1.6.2. Adverbials (page 76)
    • 1.6.3. Verbs (page 77)
    • 1.7. Stress Groups (page 79)
    • 1.7.1. Numeral + Counted Nominal (page 79)
    • 1.7.2. Negator + Verb/Nominal/Adverbial (page 79)
    • 1.7.3. Demonstrative + Nominal (page 80)
  • 2. Pronouns (page 81)
    • 2.1. Independent Personal Pronouns (page 81)
    • 2.2. Demonstrative Pronouns (page 81)
    • 2.2.1. Independent Near Deixis Pronouns (page 81)
    • 2.2.2. Independent Far Deixis Pronouns (page 82)
    • 2.2.3. Attributive Near Deixis Pronouns (page 82)
    • 2.2.4. Attributive Far Deixis Pronouns (page 82)
    • 2.3. Pronominal Suffixes on Nouns and Prepositions (page 83)
    • 2.4. Independent Genitive Pronoun (page 85)
    • 2.5. Reflexive and Reciprocal Pronouns (page 85)
    • 2.6. Interrogative Pronouns (page 86)
  • 3. Verbs (page 87)
    • 3.1. Verbal Stems (page 87)
      • Stem I (page 87)
      • Stem II (page 88)
      • Stem III (page 88)
      • Quadriliteral (page 88)
    • 3.2. Inflectional Suffixes (page 90)
    • 3.2.1. S-suffixes (page 90)
    • 3.2.2. L-suffixes (page 90)
    • 3.3. Inflection of the Present Base with S-suffixes (page 91)
    • 3.3.1. Stem I Verbs (page 91)
    • 3.3.2. Stem II Verbs (page 91)
    • 3.3.3. Stem III Verbs (page 92)
    • 3.3.4. Quadriliteral Verbs (page 92)
    • 3.3.5. Verbs with Bases Ending in /n/ or /l/ (page 92)
    • 3.4. Inflection of the Intransitive and Passive Past Base with S-suffixes (page 93)
    • 3.4.1. Stem I Verbs (page 93)
    • 3.4.2. Stem III Verbs (page 94)
    • 3.4.3. Quadriliteral Verbs (page 95)
    • 3.5. Inflection of the Transitive Past Base with S-suffixes (page 95)
    • 3.5.1. Stem I (page 96)
    • 3.5.2. Stem II (page 96)
    • 3.5.3. Stem III (page 96)
    • 3.5.4. Quadriliteral Verbs (page 96)
    • 3.6. Inflection of the Transitive Past Base with L-suffixes (page 96)
    • 3.6.1. Stem I Verbs (page 96)
    • 3.6.2. Stem II Verbs (page 97)
    • 3.6.3. Stem III Verbs (page 97)
    • 3.6.4. Quadriliteral Verbs (page 97)
    • 3.6.5. Verbs with bases ending in /l/, /n/ or/r/ (page 98)
    • 3.7. Comparative Excursus (page 99)
    • 3.8. Inflection of the Imperative (page 101)
    • 3.8.1. Stem I Verbs (page 101)
    • 3.8.2. Stem II Verbs (page 101)
    • 3.8.3. Stem III Verbs (page 101)
    • 3.8.4. Quadriliteral Verbs (page 102)
    • 3.9. Inflection of the Resultative Participles (page 102)
    • 3.9.1. Stem I Verbs (page 103)
    • 3.9.2. Stem II Verbs (page 103)
    • 3.9.3. Stem III Verbs (page 104)
    • 3.9.4. Quadriliteral Verbs (page 104)
    • 3.10. Particles Combined with Verbal Forms (page 105)
    • 3.10.1. Indicative Particle (page 105)
    • 3.10.2. Deontic Particles (page 105)
    • 3.10.3. Past Converter Suffix -wa (page 105)
    • 3.11. The Copula (page 107)
    • 3.11.1. Present Copula (page 107)
    • 3.11.2. Past Copula (page 109)
    • 3.11.3. Dative Copula (page 110)
    • 3.12. Compound Verbal Forms Containing the Verb to be (page 112)
    • 3.12.1. Realis Perfect (page 112)
    • 3.12.2. Irrealis Perfect (page 114)
    • 3.12.3. Evidential Perfect (page 117)
    • 3.13. Negation of Verbal Forms (page 118)
    • 3.14. Weak Verbs in Stem I (page 120)
    • 3.14.1. Verba Primae /'/ (1) (page 120)
    • 3.14.2. Verba Primae /'/ (2) (page 122)
    • 3.14.3. Verba Primae /y/ (page 124)
    • 3.14.4. Verba Mediae /y/ (page 126)
    • 3.14.5. Verba Tertiae /y/ (page 128)
    • 3.14.6. Verba Primae /'/, Tertiae /y/ (page 131)
    • 3.14.7. Verba Mediae /w/ (page 132)
    • 3.14.8. Verba Primae /'/ (1), Mediae /w/ (page 134)
    • 3.14.9. Verba Primae /'/ (2), Mediae /w/ (page 135)
    • 3.14.10. Verba Mediae /w/, Tertiae /y/ (page 136)
    • 3.14.11.Verba Tertiae /w/ (page 137)
    • 3.15. Weak Verbs in Stem II (page 138)
    • 3.15.1. Verba Tertiae /y/ (page 138)
    • 3.15.2. Verba Mediae /w/, Tertiae /y/ (page 139)
    • 3.16. Weak Verbs in Stem III (page 140)
    • 3.16.1. Verba Primae /'/ (1) (page 140)
    • 3.16.2. Verba Primae /'/ (2) (page 141)
    • 3.16.3. Verba Primae /y/ (page 143)
    • 3.16.4. Verba Mediae /y/ (page 144)
    • 3.16.5. Verba Tertiae /y/ (page 145)
    • 3.16.6. Verba Primae /'/, Tertiae /y/ (page 146)
    • 3.16.7. Verba Mediae /w/ (page 147)
    • 3.16.8. Verba Mediae /w/, Tertiae /y/ (page 148)
    • 3.16.9. Verba Tertiae /w/ (page 149)
    • 3.16.10. Verba Primae /'/, Tertiae /w/ (page 150)
    • 3.17. Weak Quadriliteral Verbs (page 151)
    • 3.17.1. Verbal Quartae /y/ (page 151)
    • 3.18. Irregular and Defective Verbs (page 152)
    • 3.18.1. to go (page 152)
    • 3.18.2. to want (page 154)
    • 3.18.3. 'ly to know (page 156)
    • 3.18.4. hwl to give (page 157)
    • 3.18.5. hyy to come (page 159)
    • 3.18.6. hmy to bring (page 160)
    • 3.18.7. hwy to be (page 162)
    • 3.18.8. dØy ‘to hit, to place’ (page 163)
    • 3.18.9. wlt to throw (page 164)
    • 3.18.10. mwmy to swear (page 165)
    • 3.18.11. lwly to beseech (page 166)
    • 3.18.12. m??wr ‘to curse’ (page 167)
    • 3.18.13. ytw to sit (page 169)
    • 3.18.14. m-tw to place (page 170)
    • 3.18.15. xØy ‘to see’ (page 171)
    • 3.18.16. xØr ‘to become’ (page 172)
    • 3.18.17. šØr ‘to send’ (page 173)
    • 3.19. Phrasal Verbs (page 174)
    • 3.20. Pronominal Objects (page 176)
    • 3.20.1. Pronominal Direct Objects on Present Base Verbs (page 176)
    • 3.20.2. Pronominal Direct Objects on Past Base Verbs (page 181)
    • 3.20.2. Pronominal Direct Objects on Imperatives (page 181)
    • 3.20.4. Pronominal Direct Objects on Phrasal Verbs (page 182)
    • 3.21. Pronominal Indirect Object (page 183)
    • 3.22. The Existential Particles (page 184)
    • 3.22.1. Positive (page 184)
    • 3.22.2. Negative (page 185)
    • 3.23. Possessive Constructions (page 185)
    • 3.24. General Remarks on the Verbal Stems (page 185)
    • 4. Nouns (page 187)
      • 4.1. Preliminary Remarks (page 187)
      • 4.2. Nouns with -a Inflection (page 187)
      • 4.2.1. Bisyllabic Patterns (page 187)
      • 4.2.2. Trisyllabic Patterns with Three Radicals (page 191)
      • 4.2.3. Trisyllabic Patterns with Four or Five Radicals (page 192)
      • 4.3. Nouns with the Feminine Ending …ta (page 192)
      • 4.3.1. Bisyllabic Patterns (page 192)
      • 4.3.2. Trisyllabic Patterns Containing Two Radicals (page 194)
      • 4.3.3. Trisyllabic Patterns Containing Three Radicals (page 195)
      • 4.3.4. Trisyllabic Patterns Containing Four Radicals (page 196)
      • 4.4. Nouns with the Feminine Ending -da (page 196)
      • 4.5. Nouns with the Feminine Ending -la (page 196)
      • 4.6. Nouns with the Endings …ila and …ilta (page 197)
      • 4.7. The Ending -e (page 197)
      • 4.8. The Ending -i (page 197)
      • 4.9. The Ending -u (page 198)
      • 4.10. Nouns of Aramaic Stock with No Inflectional Ending (page 198)
      • 4.11. Loanwords (page 198)
      • 4.12. Gender (page 199)
      • 4.12.1. Feminine Nouns of Aramaic Stock Ending in -a (page 199)
      • 4.12.2. The Gender of Loanwords (page 202)
      • 4.13. Function of the Feminine Marker Suffixes (page 206)
      • 4.13.1. Marking Female Gender (page 206)
      • 4.13.2. Marking the Singular of Collectives (page 206)
      • 4.13.3. Verbal Nouns (page 207)
      • 4.13.4. Diminutive (page 208)
      • 4.14. Derivational Affixes of Aramaic Background (page 208)
      • 4.14.1. m-, ma- (page 208)
      • 4.14.2. …ula (page 208)
      • 4.14.3. …ana (page 209)
      • 4.14.4. …ona (page 210)
      • 4.14.5. -?sta (page 211)
      • 4.14.6. -aa (page 211)
      • 4.15. Plural Forms (page 211)
      • 4.15.1. Plural Ending -e (page 211)
      • 4.15.2. The Plural Ending -ale (page 213)
      • 4.15.3. The Plural Ending …áe (page 214)
      • 4.15.4. The Plural Ending -awae (page 214)
      • 4.15.5. The Plural Ending -awale (page 215)
      • 4.15.6. The Plural Ending -ane (page 215)
      • 4.15.7. The Plural Ending -ye (page 216)
      • 4.15.8. The Plural Ending …yale (page 217)
      • 4.15.9. The Plural Ending …yane (page 217)
      • 4.15.10. Plural of Unadapted Loanwords (page 217)
      • 4.15.11. Irregular Plurals (page 218)
      • 4.15.12. Pluralia Tantum (page 219)
      • 4.16. The Definite Article (page 219)
      • 4.17. The Indefinite Suffix (page 219)
      • 4.18. Nouns in the Absolute State (page 220)
      • 4.19. Annexation of Nouns (page 220)
      • 4.20. Noun + Adjective Compound (page 223)
    • 5. Adjectives (page 225)
      • 5.1. Preliminary Remarks (page 225)
      • 5.2. Aramaic Adjectival Patterns (page 225)
      • 5.3. Adjectives with Affixes (page 228)
      • 5.3.1. -ana (fs. -anta, pl. -ane) (page 228)
      • 5.4. Adjectives of Invariable Form (page 229)
      • 5.4.1. Forms with final …a (page 229)
      • 5.4.2. xet (page 229)
      • 5.4.3. Unadapted Loanwords (page 229)
      • 5.5. Compounds (page 230)
  • 6. Numerals (page 231)
    • 6.1. Cardinals (page 231)
    • 6.1.1. Numerals 1-10 (page 231)
    • 6.1.2. Numerals 11-19 (page 231)
    • 6.1.3. Tens (page 232)
    • 6.1.4. Hundreds (page 232)
    • 6.1.5. Thousands (page 233)
    • 6.1.6. Combination of Numerals (page 233)
    • 6.1.7. Cardinal Numerals with Pronominal Suffixes (page 233)
    • 6.2. Ordinals (page 234)
    • 6.3. Fractions (page 235)
    • 6.4. Days of the Week (page 236)
    • 6.5. Seasons (page 236)
  • 7. Particles (page 237)
    • 7.1. Preliminary Remarks (page 237)
    • 7.2. Adverbs (page 237)
    • 7.2.1. Spatial Adverbs (page 238)
    • 7.2.2. Temporal Adverbs (page 238)
    • 7.2.3. Interrogative Adverbs (page 239)
    • 7.2.4. Adverbs of Manner (page 239)
    • 7.3. Quantifiers (page 239)
    • 7.4. Prepositions (page 239)
    • 7.4.1. ba-, b- in, at, with (page 240)
    • 7.4.2. bar after, behind (page 240)
    • 7.4.3. baqa to, for (page 241)
    • 7.4.4. bayn between (page 241)
    • 7.4.5. be without (page 242)
    • 7.4.6. dawr, ba-dawr around (page 242)
    • 7.4.7. ga-, g- in (spatial), at, on (temporal) (page 242)
    • 7.4.8. ger ?az ‘apart from’ (page 243)
    • 7.4.9. h?l-, ??l- ‘to, for; object marker’ (page 243)
    • 7.4.10. laga at the home of, by the side of, with (page 244)
    • 7.4.11. mangal, mangol like (page 244)
    • 7.4.12. m?n, m- ‘from’ (page 245)
    • 7.4.13. m?nt?ke ‘with’ (page 245)
    • 7.4.14. pliyaw, ga-pliyaw amid, between (page 245)
    • 7.4.15. q?me, qam ‘before, in front of’ (page 246)
    • 7.4.16. rea, re upon (page 246)
    • 7.4.17. ta to, for; at (time); until (page 246)
    • 7.4.18. twka in place of, instead of (page 247)
    • 7.4.19. txela, txel under (page 247)
    • 7.5. Miscellaneous Uninflected Particles (page 247)
  • 8. the Syntax of Nominals (page 249)
    • 8.1. The Expression of Indefiniteness (page 249)
    • 8.1.1. xa (page 249)
    • 8.1.2. Pronominal Use of xa (page 254)
    • 8.1.3. xa dana (page 254)
    • 8.1.4. Indefinite Suffix …ek (page 255)
    • 8.1.5. Indefinite Suffix …e (page 255)
    • 8.2. The Definite Article –ake (page 256)
    • 8.3. Demonstrative Pronouns (page 258)
    • 8.3.1. Deictic Function (page 258)
    • 8.3.2. Anaphoric Function (page 259)
    • 8.3.3. Demonstratives with xa element (page 264)
    • 8.3.4. Demonstratives with dana (page 265)
    • 8.3.5. Demonstratives with Pronominal Suffixes (page 265)
    • 8.4. Presentative Particles (page 265)
    • 8.4.1. wa (page 265)
    • 8.4.2. 'ayane (page 266)
    • 8.4.3. ha (page 266)
    • 8.4.4. Near Deixis Demonstrative (page 267)
    • 8.5. The Reflexive Pronoun (page 267)
    • 8.5.1. Subject (page 267)
    • 8.5.2. Direct Object Complement (page 268)
    • 8.5.3. Complement of a Preposition (page 268)
    • 8.5.4. Genitive Complement (page 268)
    • 8.5.5. Pronominal Suffix in Place of Reflexive Pronoun (page 269)
    • 8.6. Reciprocal Pronoun (page 269)
    • 8.6.1. Complement of a Preposition (page 269)
    • 8.6.2. Genitive Complement of Noun (page 269)
    • 8.6.3. Direct Object Complement (page 269)
    • 8.7. Pronominal Suffixes and the Independent Genitive Particle (page 270)
    • 8.7.1. The Distribution of the Independent Genitive Particle (page 270)
    • 8.7.2. The long 1pl. suffix –ani (page 272)
    • 8.7.3. Pronominal Suffixes on Adverbials (page 272)
    • 8.8. Attributes (page 273)
    • 8.8.1. Adjectives (page 273)
    • 8.8.2. Adverbial Modifiers (page 274)
    • 8.8.3. Modifiers of Active Participles (page 274)
    • 8.9. Non-Attributive Modifiers (page 274)
    • 8.9.1. kul each, every (page 274)
    • 8.9.2. kule (page 275)
    • 8.9.3. tamam ‘all’ (page 276)
    • 8.9.4. rába much, many (page 277)
    • 8.9.5. xet other (page 278)
    • 8.9.6. har, har ci ‘each, every’ (page 279)
    • 8.9.7. c?kma ‘how much/many? several’ (page 280)
    • 8.9.8. xati some, a few (page 281)
    • 8.9.9. xanci ‘some, a little’ (page 281)
    • 8.9.10. basor, xa basor a little (page 281)
    • 8.9.11. hic (page 282)
    • 8.9.12. flan ‘such-and-such’ (page 282)
    • 8.10. Comparative Constructions (page 282)
    • 8.11. Conjoining of Phrases (page 284)
    • 8.12. Numerals (page 285)
    • 8.13. Gender (page 286)
    • 8.13.1. Impersonal Pronominal Reference (page 286)
    • 8.13.2. Propositional Content (page 286)
    • 8.14. Adverbial Expressions (page 287)
  • 9. The Syntax of Verbs (page 289)
    • 9.1. Preliminary Remarks (page 289)
    • 9.2. The Function of Verb Forms Derived from the Present Base (page 289)
    • 9.2.1. gar?š (page 289)
    • 9.2.2. gar?šwa (page 299)
    • 9.2.3. The Distribution of gar?š and gar?šwa (page 303)
    • 9.3. The Function of Verb Forms Derived from Past Bases (page 304)
    • 9.3.1. gr?šle (transitive), smix (intransitive) (page 304)
    • 9.3.2. gr?šwale, smixwa (page 307)
    • 9.4. The Imperative (page 310)
    • 9.5. The Copula (page 311)
    • 9.5.1. The Present Copula (page 311)
    • 9.5.2. Past Copula (page 312)
    • 9.6. The Existential Particle (page 313)
    • 9.7. The Verb hwy (page 314)
    • 9.7.1. kwe (page 315)
    • 9.7.2. hawe (page 315)
    • 9.7.3. kwewa (page 317)
    • 9.7.4. hawewa (page 317)
    • 9.8. Compound Verbal Forms Containing the Verb to be (page 317)
    • 9.8.1. Present Perfect (page 317)
    • 9.8.2. Evidential (page 318)
    • 9.8.3. Irrealis Compound Form (page 319)
    • 9.9. The Verb xØr (page 320)
    • 9.9.1. to become (page 320)
    • 9.9.2. to come into existence, to happen (page 321)
    • 9.9.3. Compound Form Suppletive to hwy (page 321)
    • 9.9.4. Compound Form with Dative Copula (page 323)
    • 9.10. Morphological Coding of Transitivity (page 324)
    • 9.11. Expression of the Passive (page 330)
    • 9.11.1. Passive Past Base (page 330)
    • 9.11.2. Passive Resultative Participle (page 331)
    • 9.11.3. Impersonal 3pl. Subject (page 333)
    • 9.11.4. Unaccusative (page 333)
    • 9.12. The Post-verbal Particle -o (page 335)
    • 9.12.1. again, back (page 335)
    • 9.12.2. Telicity (page 336)
    • 9.12.3. opening (page 338)
    • 9.12.4. Combination with Other Verbal Affixes (page 338)
    • 9.12.5. On Adverbials (page 339)
    • 9.13. Direct Object (page 339)
    • 9.13.1. Present Base Verbs and Imperatives (page 339)
    • 9.13.2. Past Base Verbs (page 342)
    • 9.13.3. Compound Verbal Forms (page 345)
    • 9.13.4. Direct Objects of Expressions with fam- (to remember) (page 349)
    • 9.14. Comparative Excursus (page 349)
    • 9.15. The Distribution of Long S-suffixes (page 351)
    • 9.16. The Infinitive (page 352)
    • 9.16.1. Nominal Function (page 352)
    • 9.16.2. Verbal Functions (page 354)
    • 9.17. Resultative Participles in Adverbial Phrases (page 355)
  • 10. The Clause (page 357)
    • 10.1 The Copula Clause (page 357)
    • 10.1.1. Preliminary Remarks (page 357)
    • 10.1.2. Basic Predicate Nexus (page 359)
    • 10.1.3. Subject Constituents (page 360)
    • 10.1.4. Postposing of Subject Constituent (page 360)
    • 10.1.5. Preposing of Predicate (page 361)
    • 10.1.6. Postposing of Predicate (page 361)
    • 10.1.7. Splitting of Copula Clause (page 362)
    • 10.1.8. Omission of Copula (page 362)
    • 10.1.9. Existential Function of the Copula and hwy (page 363)
    • 10.1.10. Interrogative Predicates (page 363)
    • 10.2. Predicative Complements of the Verb xØr (page 364)
    • 10.3. Clauses with the Existential Particles (page 364)
    • 10.3.1. Existential Clauses (page 364)
    • 10.3.2. Possessive Constructions (page 366)
    • 10.4. Verbal Clauses (page 366)
    • 10.4.1. Direct Object Constituent (page 366)
    • 10.4.2. Subject Constituent (page 370)
    • 10.4.3. Prepositional Phrases (page 377)
    • 10.4.4. Nominal Complements after Verbs of Movement (page 380)
    • 10.4.5. Nominal Complements of Verbs of Naming (page 381)
    • 10.4.6. Interrogative Clauses (page 381)
    • 10.4.7. Negated Clauses (page 382)
    • 10.5. Extrapositional Constructions (page 384)
    • 10.6. Placement of Adverbials (page 386)
    • 10.6.1. In Clause Initial Position (page 387)
    • 10.6.2. At the End or in the Middle of a Clause (page 388)
  • 11. Clause Sequences (page 389)
    • 11.1. Expression of Co-ordinative Clausal Connection (page 389)
    • 11.1.1. Asyndetic Connection (page 389)
    • 11.1.2. The Co-ordinating Particle u (page 390)
    • 11.1.3. The Co-ordinating Particle wa (page 392)
    • 11.2. -?c (page 393)
    • 11.2.1. Proposition Orientated Usage (page 393)
    • 11.2.2. Constituent Orientated Usage (page 395)
    • 11.3. Intonation Group Boundaries (page 396)
    • 11.4. Incremental Repetition (page 397)
  • 12. Syntactic Subordination of Clauses (page 399)
    • 12.1. Relative Clauses (page 399)
    • 12.1.1. Syndetic Relative Clauses (page 399)
    • 12.1.2. Asyndetic Relative Clauses (page 403)
    • 12.1.3. har-ci, har-kas (page 404)
    • 12.1.4. The Internal Structure of Relative Clauses (page 405)
    • 12.2. Cleft Constructions (page 406)
    • 12.3. Modifier Clauses (page 407)
    • 12.4. Indirect Questions (page 407)
    • 12.5. Subordinate Content Clauses (page 408)
    • 12.5.1. ke (page 408)
    • 12.5.2. ta- (page 411)
    • 12.5.3. baqa (page 412)
    • 12.5.4. qame, qam (page 413)
    • 12.5.5. bar (page 414)
    • 12.5.6. twka (page 415)
    • 12.5.7. qarwa (page 415)
    • 12.5.8. mangol, dax (page 415)
    • 12.6. Temporal Clauses (page 416)
    • 12.6.1. waxt-e (page 416)
    • 12.6.2. ba-mudat-e ke (page 417)
    • 12.6.3. zaman-e ke (page 417)
    • 12.6.4. cun (page 417)
    • 12.6.5. Asyndetic Temporal Constructions (page 417)
    • 12.7. Conditional Constructions (page 418)
    • 12.7.1. Constructions with the Particle ?agar (page 418)
    • 12.7.2. Relative Clauses with Generic Heads (page 421)
    • 12.7.3. Asyndetic Conditional Constructions (page 421)
    • 12.8. Concessive Constructions (page 421)
  • 13. The Lexicon (page 423)
    • 13.1. The Human Body (page 423)
    • 13.2. Family Relations (page 425)
    • 13.3. Natural Phenomena (page 427)
    • 13.4. Basic attributes (page 427)
    • 13.5. Colours (page 428)
    • 13.6. Verbs Relating to Basic Activities (page 429)
    • 13.7. Verbs Relating to Movement (page 429)
    • 13.8. Verbs of Perception (page 430)
    • 15.9. Verbs Relating to Aggression (page 430)
    • 15.10 Social Interaction (page 431)
  • Texts (page 432)
    • Informant A (Habib Nurani) (page 432)
    • A Wedding in Sanandaj (page 432)
    • Festivals (page 444)
    • Professions of the Jews (page 448)
    • Houses (page 448)
    • Rabbis (page 448)
    • Relations between Jews and Muslims (page 450)
    • Winter (page 452)
    • King Solomon (page 454)
    • The Tale of the Jealous Neighbour (page 456)
    • Nadir Shah (page 458)
    • Informant B (Yeskel Paz) (page 460)
    • The Historical Background of the Jews (page 460)
    • Professions of the Jews (page 460)
    • Festivals (page 464)
    • Houses (page 480)
    • Synagogues and the Alliance Israélite Universelle (page 480)
    • The Christians of Sanandaj (page 482)
    • New Year (page 484)
    • The Day of Atonement (page 486)
    • Tabernacles (page 488)
    • Hoshana Rabba (page 490)
    • Raza Shah (page 490)
    • Informant C (Negar Paz) (page 494)
    • Reminiscences (page 494)
    • Informant D (Victoria Amini) (page 502)
    • The Tale of the Bald Boy (page 502)
    • Informant E (Danny Avrahami) (page 510)
    • An Ode to Our Language (page 510)
  • Bibliography (page 525)
  • Glossary of Verbs (page 529)
  • General Glossary (page 559)
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