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This volume describes the Neo-Aramaic dialect spoken by descendants of Christian villagers from a district in Southeast Turkey, now largely resident in Russia. This volume is based on fieldwork carried out by the author in Russia, Georgia, and the United States. The volume contains a historical introduction, a grammatical description, transcribed and translated texts, and a glossary with etymological notes.
Publisher: Gorgias Press LLC
Availability: In stock
SKU (ISBN): 978-1-60724-133-1
  • *
Publication Status: In Print

Publication Date: Dec 2,2009
Interior Color: Black
Trim Size: 6 x 9
Page Count: 185
Language: English
ISBN: 978-1-60724-133-1
$159.69
$95.81

This volume describes the Neo-Aramaic dialect that is spoken by the descendants of the inhabitants of a cluster of villages in the Siirt province of South-East Turkey. The speakers of this dialect fled their homes in 1915, during a period of massacres that claimed the lives of most of the Christians of their district. After a lengthy period in Azerbaijan and seven years in Siberian exile, the members of the community now live in Russia on the Northern fringes of the Caucasus. The number of remaining speakers does not exceed a few hundred. This volume is based on fieldwork carried out by the author with speakers of the dialect in Russia, Georgia, and the United States. The dialect differs strikingly from all other attested forms of Neo-Aramaic in its phonology, its morphology, and its syntax. The influence of Kurdish is pervasive, and is felt particularly strongly in the syntax and the vocabulary. The volume contains a general introduction with information on the speakers and their history, a grammatical description, transcribed and translated texts, and a glossary with etymological notes.

This volume describes the Neo-Aramaic dialect that is spoken by the descendants of the inhabitants of a cluster of villages in the Siirt province of South-East Turkey. The speakers of this dialect fled their homes in 1915, during a period of massacres that claimed the lives of most of the Christians of their district. After a lengthy period in Azerbaijan and seven years in Siberian exile, the members of the community now live in Russia on the Northern fringes of the Caucasus. The number of remaining speakers does not exceed a few hundred. This volume is based on fieldwork carried out by the author with speakers of the dialect in Russia, Georgia, and the United States. The dialect differs strikingly from all other attested forms of Neo-Aramaic in its phonology, its morphology, and its syntax. The influence of Kurdish is pervasive, and is felt particularly strongly in the syntax and the vocabulary. The volume contains a general introduction with information on the speakers and their history, a grammatical description, transcribed and translated texts, and a glossary with etymological notes.

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Contributor Biography

Samuel Fox

Samuel Fox received his PhD from the University of Chicago in 1982. His scholarly work has concentrated on Neo-Aramaic. He has previously published a grammar of the Jilu dialect and a number of articles.

  • Table of Contents (page 7)
  • Acknowledgements (page 11)
  • Abbreviations (page 13)
  • Introduction (page 15)
    • 0.1. Original Homeland of Speakers (page 15)
    • 0.2. Outline of the Period 1915-2000 (page 17)
    • 0.3. Current Location, Situation, and Numbers (page 18)
    • 0.4. Other Languages Spoken by Bohtan Speakers (page 18)
    • 0.5. Bohtan Within Nena (page 19)
  • 1. Phonology (page 21)
    • 1.1. Consonants (page 21)
      • 1.1.2. Realization (page 21)
    • 1.2. BGDKPT (page 22)
      • 1.2.1. Regular (page 22)
      • 1.2.2. Occasional f (page 23)
      • 1.2.3. Borrowed and Native c (page 23)
      • 1.2.4 Reflexes of g, ?, `, and ' (page 24)
    • 1.3. Vowels (page 24)
      • 1.3.1. Nature of long / short alternation (page 24)
      • 1.3.2. Long vowels (page 26)
      • 1.3.3. Short Vowels (page 27)
      • 1.3.4. Vowel Minimal Pairs (page 28)
        • 1.3.4.1. Long Vowels (page 28)
        • 1.3.4.2. Short Vowels (page 29)
      • 1.3.5. Diphthongs (page 30)
      • 1.3 6. Acoustic Analysis of Vowels (page 31)
      • 1.3.7. Problem of Overlap (page 32)
    • 1.4. Stress (page 32)
      • 1.4.1. General Remarks (page 32)
      • 1.4.2. Verbal Constructions (page 33)
      • 1.4.3. Nouns with Suffixes (page 33)
    • 1.5. Emphasis (page 34)
    • 1.6. Historical Changes (page 34)
      • 1.6.1. a > o (page 34)
      • 1.6.2. ay > a (page 36)
    • 1.7. Variability (page 37)
      • 1.7.1. oyV / owV / ohV (page 37)
      • 1.7.2. The Alternation k / c (page 37)
      • 1.7.3. The Alternation u / ü (page 37)
      • 1.7.4. The Alternation i / ü (page 38)
    • 1.8. Consonant Clusters (page 38)
    • 1.9. Gemination (page 40)
  • 2. Morphology (page 43)
    • 2.1. the Verb (page 43)
      • 2.1.1. Historical Origins of the System (page 43)
    • 2.1.2. Stems (page 45)
    • 2.1.3. Classes (page 45)
      • 2.1.3.1. Class I (page 45)
      • 2.1.3.2. Class II (page 47)
      • 2.1.3.3. Class III (page 49)
      • 2.1.3.4. Quadriliteral (page 50)
      • 2.1.3.5. Changes from Inherited Class (page 52)
    • 2.1.4. Weak Verbs (page 53)
      • 2.1.4.1. Final-Weak (page 53)
      • 2.1.4.2. Final Ayin (page 55)
      • 2.1.4.3. Final w (page 55)
      • 2.1.4.4. Middle-Weak (page 56)
      • 2.1.4.5. Initial y (page 57)
      • 2.1.4.6. Vowel-Initial (page 58)
    • 2.1.5. Irregular Verbs (page 59)
      • 2.1.5.1. to want (page 59)
      • 2.1.5.2. izola to go (page 60)
      • 2.1.5.3. itoya to come (page 62)
      • 2.1.5.4. hiwoya to give (page 62)
      • 2.1.5.5. imora to say (page 63)
      • 2.1.5.6. idoya to know (page 64)
      • 2.1.5.7. mpola to fall (page 65)
      • 2.1.5.8. matuye to bring (page 65)
    • 2.1.6. Subject Marking (page 65)
      • A set (page 66)
      • L set (page 66)
    • 2.1.7. Tense Formation and Meaning (page 69)
      • 2.1.7.1. Present (page 69)
      • 2.1.7.2. Subjunctive (page 69)
      • 2.1.7.3. Past (page 69)
      • 2.1.7.4. Future (page 70)
      • 2.1.7.5. Preterite (page 70)
      • 2.1.7.6. Perfect (page 70)
      • 2.1.7.7. Pluperfect (page 71)
      • 2.1.7.8. Perfect (2) (page 71)
    • 2.1.8. Negation (page 71)
      • 2.1.8.1. Negation with la: (page 71)
        • 2.1.8.1.1. Preterite (page 71)
        • 2.1.8.1.2. Perfect (page 71)
        • 2.1.8.1.3. Subjunctive (page 72)
        • 2.1.8.1.4. Conditionals (page 72)
      • 2.1.8.2. Negation with le (page 72)
        • 2.1.8.2.1. Present (page 72)
        • 2.1.8.2.2. Future (page 73)
        • 2.1.8.2.3. Past (page 73)
    • 2.1.9. Special Negative Forms (page 73)
    • 2.1.10. Object Marking (page 74)
  • 2.1.11. Summary of Subject and Object Marking (page 74)
  • 2.1.12. Copula (page 75)
    • 2.1.12.1. Independent (page 75)
    • 2.1.12.2. Enclitic (page 76)
    • 2.1.12.3. Deictic (page 76)
    • 2.1.12.4. Negative (page 77)
    • 2.1.12.5. Past (page 78)
    • 2.1.12.6. Negative Past (page 78)
    • 2.1.12.7. Jussive (page 79)
    • 2.1.12.8. Preterite and Perfect (page 79)
    • 2.1.12.9. Modal q?d / laqqad (page 80)
    • 2.1.12.10. Existence and Possession (page 80)
  • 2.1.13. Verbal Paradigms (page 82)
    • 2.1.13.1. Strong Verbs (page 82)
    • 2.1.13.2. Final-Weak Verbs (page 83)
    • 2.1.13.3. Final Ayin (page 85)
    • 2.1.13.4. Middle-Weak Verbs (page 85)
    • 2.1.13.5. Vowel-Initial Verbs (page 87)
  • 2.2. Pronouns (page 88)
    • 2.2.1. Independent (page 88)
    • 2.2.2. Pronominal Suffixes (page 89)
    • 2.2.3. Independent Possessive Pronouns (page 90)
    • 2.2.4. Reflexive (page 91)
    • 2.2.5. Reciprocal (page 92)
    • 2.2.6. Demonstratives (page 92)
    • 2.2.7. Interrogatives (page 94)
  • 2.3. The Noun (page 96)
    • 2.3.1. General (page 96)
    • 2.3.2. Common Noun Patterns (page 97)
      • 2.3.2.1. Native and Assimilated Nouns Ending in …a (page 97)
      • 2.3.2.2. Native and Assimilated Nouns Ending in …ta (page 98)
      • 2.3.2.3. Nouns Not Ending in …a or -ta (page 99)
    • 2.3.3. Gender (page 100)
    • 2.3.4. Derivational Suffixes (page 101)
      • 2.3.4.1. -ona (f. …anta) (page 101)
      • 2.3.4.2. …una (f. …unta) (page 102)
      • 2.3.4.3. -uta (page 102)
      • 2.3.4.4. …oya / -owa (f. …ata) (page 102)
    • 2.3.5. Plural Formation (page 102)
      • 2.3.5.1. Final …a is Replaced by …e (page 103)
      • 2.3.5.2. Final …ta is Replaced by …e (page 103)
      • 2.3.5.3. Final …a is replaced by …one (page 103)
      • 2.3.5.4. Final …a is Replaced by …ota (page 104)
      • 2.3.5.5. Final …a is Replaced by …wota: (page 104)
      • 2.3.5.6. Final …ta is Replaced by …twota (page 104)
      • 2.3.5.7. Final …ta is Replaced by …wota (page 104)
      • 2.3.5.8. Final …ta is Replaced by …yota (page 104)
      • 2.3.5.9. Words Not Ending in …a or …ta (page 105)
      • 2.3.5.10. Irregular Plurals (page 105)
    • 2.3.6. I?afa Formation (page 106)
  • 2.4. the Adjective (page 107)
    • 2.4.1. General (page 107)
    • 2.4.2. Adjectives with Limited Agreement (page 108)
    • 2.4.3 Invariable adjectives (page 109)
    • 2.4.4. Comparison (page 109)
  • 2.5. Adverbs (page 109)
    • 2.5.1. Adverbs of Time (page 109)
    • 2.5.2. Adverbs of Direction (page 110)
    • 2.5.3. Adverbs of Place (page 110)
    • 2.5.4. Adverbs of Manner (page 110)
    • 2.5.5. Adverbs of Quantity (page 110)
    • 2.5.6. Others (page 110)
  • 2.6. Pre- and Postpositions (page 111)
    • 2.6.1. Prepositions (page 111)
      • 2.6.1.1. Prefixed Prepositions (page 111)
      • 2.6.1.2. Simple Prepositions (page 111)
      • 2.6.1.3. Extended Prepositions (page 112)
      • 2.6.1.4. Compound Prepositions (page 113)
    • 2.6.2. Postposition …lal (page 115)
  • 2.7. Conjunctions (page 116)
  • 2.8. Numbers (page 117)
  • 3. Syntax (page 119)
    • 3.1. Clauses (page 119)
      • 3.1.1. Copular Clause Elements and Sequence (page 119)
      • 3.1.2. it Clause (page 120)
      • 3.1.3. Possession (page 120)
      • 3.1.4. Verbal Clause Constituents (page 121)
      • 3.1.5. Interrogatives (page 123)
    • 3.2. Clause Sequences (page 124)
    • 3.3. Subordinate Clauses (page 124)
      • 3.3.1. Relative Clauses (page 124)
      • 3.3.2. Conditionals (page 125)
      • 3.3.3. Complements (page 126)
    • 3.4. Noun Phrases (page 126)
      • 3.4.1. Definiteness (page 126)
        • 3.4.1.1. xa (page 126)
        • 3.4.1.2. No Determiner (page 127)
        • 3.4.1.3. Determined by aw or at (page 127)
      • 3.4.2. Numbers (page 128)
  • 4. Texts (page 130)
    • 4.1. Jambali (page 130)
    • 4.2. Anecdote: the Brides (page 146)
    • 4.3. Anecdote: the Grooms (page 148)
  • 5. Glossary (page 153)
  • Bibliography (page 187)