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"YHWH Fights for Them!"


The Divine Warrior in the Exodus Narrative


The divine warrior is an important motif in the Old Testament, leading many to study profitably the motif in its most prominent manifestations in poetic texts. This study builds on that foundation by examining the divine warrior in detail in the exodus narrative to construct a broader picture of the motif in the Old Testament.
Publisher: Gorgias Press LLC
Availability: In stock
SKU (ISBN): 978-1-4632-0271-2
  • *
Publication Status: In Print

Publication Date: Jun 2,2014
Interior Color: Black with Color Inserts
Trim Size: 6 x 9
Page Count: 328
Language: English
ISBN: 978-1-4632-0271-2
$164.00

The divine warrior is an important motif in the Old Testament, leading many to study profitably the motif in its most prominent manifestations in poetic texts. This study builds on that foundation by examining the divine warrior in detail in the exodus narrative to construct a broader picture of the motif in the Old Testament.

The heart of the work focuses on the exodus narrative. Many aspects of YHWH’s actions in the narrative, such as the terminology, his nature weapons, his psychological attacks, the presence of supernatural envoys and disease, and his harmonious relationship with his people identify YHWH’s role as that of a divine warrior. Several other elements match the description of the motif of the divine warrior elsewhere in the Old Testament, but are described in more detail in the narrative than in the briefer poetic divine warrior texts. The exodus narrative also expands the martial aspects of the divine warrior, as it includes a broader selection of nature weapons, psychological attacks directed at Pharaoh, the employment of cosmic enemies against Pharaoh, and assaults on the Egyptians gods. Finally, a possible connection between the divine control of Pharaoh (focusing in particular on the hardening of his heart) and the motif of the divine warrior is explored.

Charlie Trimm (Ph.D., Wheaton College) is Assistant Professor of Biblical & Theological Studies at Biola University in La Mirada, CA.

The divine warrior is an important motif in the Old Testament, leading many to study profitably the motif in its most prominent manifestations in poetic texts. This study builds on that foundation by examining the divine warrior in detail in the exodus narrative to construct a broader picture of the motif in the Old Testament.

The heart of the work focuses on the exodus narrative. Many aspects of YHWH’s actions in the narrative, such as the terminology, his nature weapons, his psychological attacks, the presence of supernatural envoys and disease, and his harmonious relationship with his people identify YHWH’s role as that of a divine warrior. Several other elements match the description of the motif of the divine warrior elsewhere in the Old Testament, but are described in more detail in the narrative than in the briefer poetic divine warrior texts. The exodus narrative also expands the martial aspects of the divine warrior, as it includes a broader selection of nature weapons, psychological attacks directed at Pharaoh, the employment of cosmic enemies against Pharaoh, and assaults on the Egyptians gods. Finally, a possible connection between the divine control of Pharaoh (focusing in particular on the hardening of his heart) and the motif of the divine warrior is explored.

Charlie Trimm (Ph.D., Wheaton College) is Assistant Professor of Biblical & Theological Studies at Biola University in La Mirada, CA.

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Contributor Biography

Charlie Trimm

Charlie Trimm is an assistant professor of biblical and theological studies at Biola University. He holds a Ph.D. in Old Testament from Wheaton College. He has written and presented on warfare in the Old Testament and the ancient Near East.

  • Table of Contents (page 5)
  • Acknowledgments (page 9)
  • List of Figures (page 11)
  • Abbreviations (page 13)
  • Introduction (page 19)
  • The Divine Warrior in the Old Testament (page 29)
    • Poetic Texts (page 29)
      • Embedded Divine Warrior Texts: Exodus 15:1-18 (page 29)
      • Psalmic Divine Warrior Texts: Psalm 18//2 Samuel 22 (page 43)
      • Prophetic Divine Warrior Texts: Habakkuk 3 (page 47)
    • Definition of Divine Warrior (page 53)
    • Prose Texts (page 59)
    • Conclusion (page 60)
  • The Divine Warrior Motif in Exodus 1-14 (page 61)
    • Terminology (page 61)
    • Nature Weapons (page 65)
    • Psychological Attacks (page 71)
      • Panic (page 72)
      • The Exaltation of the Human Attacker (page 76)
    • Supernatural Envoys and Disease (page 80)
    • YHWH's Relationship with His People (page 85)
      • YHWH's Desire for a Relationship with Israel (page 86)
      • Israelite Trust in YHWH (page 90)
    • Conclusion (page 92)
  • The Narrative Expansion of the Divine Warrior Motif (page 95)
    • Casus Belli (page 95)
      • The Most Favored Guests: Egypt in Genesis (page 95)
      • The Most Feared Threat: Egypt in Exodus (page 102)
    • The Role of Human Army and Leaders (page 115)
      • The Israelite Army (page 115)
      • Moses and Aaron (page 119)
    • The Identification of the Enemy (page 125)
      • The Egyptian People (page 126)
      • The Magicians (page 129)
      • The Military (page 132)
      • The Innocent Victims (page 135)
    • The Salvation of Israel (page 136)
      • Israel's Separation from Egypt (page 137)
      • Israel's Departure from Egypt (page 139)
      • YHWH's Rescue of Israel from Egypt (page 142)
      • YHWH's Guidances of Israel from Egypt (page 145)
    • The Praise of the Divine Warrior (page 147)
      • The Acknowledgement of YHWH (page 151)
      • The Acknowledgement of YHWH's Power (page 161)
      • The Acknowledgement of YHWH's Name (page 162)
      • The Acknowledgement of YHWH's Glory (page 166)
    • Conclusion (page 166)
  • The Martial Expansion of the Divine Warrior Motif (page 169)
    • A Broader Selections of Nature Weapons (page 169)
    • Broader Psychological Attacks (page 174)
      • Lack of Control (page 174)
      • Ignorance (page 177)
    • The Employment of Cosmic Enemies (page 184)
    • The Defeat of Enemy Gods (page 191)
    • Conclusion (page 197)
  • The Relational Expansion of the Divine Warrior Motif (page 199)
    • A Broader Selection of Nature Weapons (page 169)
    • Broader Psychological Attacks (page 174)
      • Lack of Control (page 174)
      • Ignorance (page 177)
    • The Employment of Cosmic Enemies (page 184)
    • The Defeat of Enemy Gods (page 191)
    • Conclusion (page 197)
  • The Relational Expansion of the Divine Warrior Motif (page 199)
    • A National Narrative (page 199)
    • YHWH's Complex Relationship with His People (page 204)
      • Israelite Ignorance of YHWH (page 204)
      • Israelite Vacillation (page 207)
      • A Warning for Israel (page 208)
    • Conclusion (page 217)
  • The Divine Control of Pharoah (page 219)
    • A Lexical Study of Hardening of the Heart (page 219)
    • The Divine Control in the Exodus Narrative (page 224)
    • The Purpose of the Divine Control (page 233)
  • Conclusion (page 241)
    • The Exodus in the Old Testament (page 243)
    • Reading Poetic Texts (page 248)
    • Further Exploration of the Motif (page 251)
      • Monergism and Synergism (page 251)
      • YHWH against His People (page 254)
      • YHWH for the Nations (page 256)
      • Jesus the Divine Warrior (page 258)
  • Bibliography (page 261)
  • Figures (page 297)
  • Index (page 301)
    • Biblical References (page 301)
    • Subjects (page 326)
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